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Ionic Compound Formulas www.lab-initio.com IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Cation: A positive.

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Presentation on theme: "Ionic Compound Formulas www.lab-initio.com IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Cation: A positive."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ionic Compound Formulas

3 IonsIons  Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2   Cation: A positive ion  Mg 2+, NH 4 +  Anion: A negative ion  Cl , SO 4 2 

4 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H+H+H+H+ Li + Na + K+K+K+K+

5 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba 2+

6 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 13: Loses 3 Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+

7 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 14: Lose 4 Lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons? Neither! Group 13 elements rarely form ions.

8 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 15: Gains 3 Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions N 3- P 3- As 3- Nitride Phosphide Arsenide

9 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 16: Gains 2 Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions O 2- S 2- Se 2- Oxide Sulfide Selenide

10 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 17: Gains 1 Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions F 1- Cl 1- Br 1- Fluoride Chloride Bromide I 1- Iodide

11 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: Stable Noble gases do not form ions! Stable Noble gases do not form ions!

12 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups : Many transition elements Many transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe 2+ Iron(III) = Fe 3+

13 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups : Some transition elements Some transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn 2+ Silver = Ag +

14 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Ba 2+ NO Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

15 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! NH 4 + SO Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

16 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Iron(III) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Fe 3+ Cl - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 3

17 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ S Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! 23

18 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Mg 2+ CO Check to see if charges are balanced. They are balanced!

19 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Zn 2+ OH - 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Not balanced! ( ) 2

20 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! Al 3+ PO Check to see if charges are balanced. They ARE balanced!

21 Naming Ionic Compounds  Cation first, then anion  Monatomic cation = name of the element  Ca 2+ = calcium ion  Monatomic anion = root + -ide  Cl  = chloride  CaCl 2 = calcium chloride  Cation first, then anion  Monatomic cation = name of the element  Ca 2+ = calcium ion  Monatomic anion = root + -ide  Cl  = chloride  CaCl 2 = calcium chloride

22 Naming Ionic Compounds (continued)  some metal forms more than one cation  use Roman numeral in name  PbCl 2  Pb 2+ is cation  PbCl 2 = lead(II) chloride  some metal forms more than one cation  use Roman numeral in name  PbCl 2  Pb 2+ is cation  PbCl 2 = lead(II) chloride Metals with multiple oxidation states


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