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Chapter 25 The Urinary System

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1 Chapter 25 The Urinary System

2 Urinary System Organs Kidneys are major excretory organs
Urinary bladder is the temporary storage reservoir for urine Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Urethra transports urine out of the body Kidneys filter 200 liters of fluid from the blood a day removing toxins, waste, and excess ions

3 Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and pH Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting Endocrine functions Renin: regulation of blood pressure and kidney function Erythropoietin: regulation of RBC production Activation of vitamin D

4 Kidney Anatomy Retroperitoneal, in the superior lumbar region
Right kidney is lower than the left Convex lateral surface, concave medial surface Renal hilum leads to the renal sinus Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the hilum

5 Layers of supportive tissue
Kidney Anatomy Layers of supportive tissue Renal fascia-outer layer The anchoring outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue Perirenal fat capsule-surrounds the kidney A fatty cushion Fibrous capsule-transparent capsule Prevents spread of infection to kidney Renal ptosis-if fatty layer is lost, kidney may drop lower and cause a kink in the ureter; this can prevent the urine from draining-can lead to hydronephrosis or backup and pressure of urine in the kidney

6 Internal Anatomy Renal cortex Renal medulla Lobe
A granular superficial region Renal medulla The cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyramids separated by renal columns Lobe A medullary pyramid and its surrounding cortical tissue

7 Internal Anatomy Papilla Renal pelvis
Tip of pyramid; releases urine into minor calyx Renal pelvis The funnel-shaped tube within the renal sinus

8 Internal Anatomy Major calyces Urine flows from the pelvis to ureter
The branching channels of the renal pelvis that Collect urine from minor calyces Empty urine into the pelvis Urine flows from the pelvis to ureter Pyelitis-infections of the renal pelvis or calyces Pyelonephritis – infections of the entire kidney; in females usually caused by fecal bacteria (may come from other bacteria traveling)-in severe cases it causes the kidney swells, abscesses form, and the pelvis fills with pus

9 Blood and Nerve Supply Renal arteries deliver ~ 1/4 (1200 ml) of cardiac output to the kidneys each minute Arterial flow into and venous flow out of the kidneys follow similar paths Nerve supply is via sympathetic fibers from the renal plexus Renal artery from the abdominal aorta (right renal artery is longer than left because aorta lies to the left of the midline) Divides into 5 segmented arteries which then branch into 5 interlobar arteries (the arcurate arteries) Cortical radiate arteries branch from the interlobar arteries

10 Cortical radiate artery
Aorta Inferior vena cava Renal artery Renal vein Segmental artery Interlobar vein Interlobar artery Arcuate vein Cortical radiate vein Arcuate artery Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta Cortical radiate artery Afferent arteriole Efferent arteriole Glomerulus (capillaries) (b) Path of blood flow through renal blood vessels Figure 25.4b

11 Nephrons Structural and functional units that form urine
Two main parts Glomerulus: a tuft of capillaries Renal tubule: begins as cup-shaped glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule surrounding the glomerulus ~1 million per kidney Renal tube comes from Bowman’s capsule

12 Nephrons Renal corpuscle Fenestrated glomerular endothelium
Glomerulus + its glomerular capsule Fenestrated glomerular endothelium Allows filtrate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule

13 Renal Tubule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Cuboidal cells with dense microvilli and large mitochondria Functions in reabsorption and secretion Confined to the cortex After the renal tube leaves the glomerulus it has three parts which are about 3 cm long

14 Renal Tubule Loop of Henle with descending and ascending limbs
Thin segment usually in descending limb Simple squamous epithelium Freely permeable to water Thick segment of ascending limb Cuboidal to columnar cells

15 Renal Tubule Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
Cuboidal cells with very few microvilli Function more in secretion than reabsorption Confined to the cortex

16 Collecting Ducts Receive filtrate from many nephrons
Fuse together to deliver urine through papillae into minor calyces Give kidneys their striped appearance Two types of cells in the collecting ducts Intercalated cells Cuboidal cells with microvilli Function in maintaining the acid-base balance of the body Principal cells Cuboidal cells without microvilli Help maintain the body’s water and salt balance

17 Cortical nephrons—85% of nephrons; almost entirely in the cortex
Juxtamedullary nephrons Long loops of Henle deeply invade the medulla Extensive thin segments Important in the production of concentrated urine

18 Nephron Capillary Beds
Glomerulus Afferent arteriole  glomerulus  efferent arteriole Specialized for filtration Blood pressure is high because Afferent arterioles are smaller in diameter than efferent arterioles Arterioles are high-resistance vessels Differs from all capillary beds because it is fed and is drained from arterioles High blood pressure easily forces fluid and solutes out of the blood int the glomerular capsule-about 99% is reabsorbed by the renal tubule and returned to the blood in the peritubular capillary beds

19 Nephron Capillary Beds
Peritubular capillaries Low-pressure, porous capillaries adapted for absorption Arise from efferent arterioles Cling to adjacent renal tubules in cortex Empty into venules

20 Nephron Capillary Beds
Vasa recta Long vessels parallel to long loops of Henle Arise from efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons Function information of concentrated urine

21 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA)
One per nephron Important in regulation of filtrate formation and blood pressure Portion of the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle comes into contact with the afferent arteriole Important in the regulation of renin and monitoring NaCl content of filtrate

22 Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation
The kidneys filter the body’s entire plasma volume 60 times each day Filtrate Blood plasma minus proteins Urine <1% of total filtrate Contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances 1200 ml of blood passes the glomeruli each minute-650 ml is plasma and about 1/5 ( ml) is forced into renal tubules-equivilant to filtering entire plasma 60 times a day Kidneys account for 1% of total body weight, but consume about 20-25% of all oxygen used by the body at rest Kidneys process about 180 L (47 gallons) of blood derived fluid daily-of this less than 1% leaves the body (1.5 L) as urine-rest returns to circulation

23 Mechanisms of Urine Formation
Glomerular filtration Tubular reabsorption Returns all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salt, and other components to the blood Tubular secretion Reverse of reabsoprtion: selective addition to urine Glomerular Filtration Passive mechanical process driven by hydrostatic pressure The glomerulus is a very efficient filter because Its filtration membrane is very permeable and it has a large surface area Glomerular blood pressure is higher (55 mm Hg) than other capillaries Molecules >5 nm are not filtered (e.g., plasma proteins) and function to maintain colloid osmotic pressure of the blood

24 Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Volume of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys (normal: 120–125 ml/min) Governed by (and directly proportional to) Total surface area available for filtration Filtration membrane permeability Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) - The pressure responsible for filtrate formation (10 mm Hg) Glomerular capillaries have the surface area of the skin This means huge amounts of filtrates can be produced even with the low NFP-flip side is a drop of only 18% stops filtration completely Any factors that change NFP will directly affect GFR

25 Extrinsic Controls: Sympathetic Nervous System
Under normal conditions at rest Renal blood vessels are dilated Renal autoregulation mechanisms prevail Under extreme stress Norepinephrine and epinepherine are released Both cause constriction of afferent arterioles, inhibiting filtration and triggering the release of renin

26 Effects of Angiotensin II
Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing MAP to rise Stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ Acts directly on the renal tubules Triggers adrenal cortex to release aldosterone Stimulates the hypothalamus to release ADH and activates the thirst center Release of renin creates a cascade of events that ultimately leads to the production of angiotensin II Aldosterone promotes the conservation of sodium and excretion of potassium This works in conjunction with ADH to promote water conservation

27 Effects of Angiotensin II
Constricts efferent arterioles, decreasing peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure and increasing fluid reabsorption Causes glomerular mesangial cells to contract, decreasing the surface area available for filtration Easiest way to remember the effect of angiotensin II is to remember its job is to restore blood volume and blood pressure-all the hormones and changes will promote the return of water to the blood system and not into the urinary system for excretion

28 A selective transepithelial process
Tubular Reabsorption A selective transepithelial process All organic nutrients are reabsorbed Water and ion reabsorption are hormonally regulated Na+ (most abundant cation in filtrate) Other ions also reabsorbed – Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ All of the total plasma volume filters into the renal tubules about every 22 minutes

29 Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts
PCT Site of most reabsorption 65% of Na+ and water All nutrients Ions Small proteins

30 Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts
Loop of Henle Descending limb: H2O Ascending limb: Na+, K+, Cl

31 Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts
DCT and collecting duct Reabsorption is hormonally regulated Ca2+ (PTH) Water (ADH) Na+ (aldosterone and ANP)

32 Tubular Secretion Reabsorption in reverse
K+, H+, NH4+, creatinine, and organic acids move from peritubular capillaries or tubule cells into filtrate Disposes of substances that are bound to plasma proteins

33 Importance of Tubular Secretion
Eliminates undesirable substances that have been passively reabsorbed (e.g., urea and uric acid) Rids the body of excess K+ Controls blood pH by altering amounts of H+ or HCO3– in urine

34 Formation of Dilute Urine
Filtrate is diluted in the ascending loop of Henle In the absence of ADH, dilute filtrate continues into the renal pelvis as dilute urine

35 Formation of Concentrated Urine
Depends on the medullary osmotic gradient and ADH ADH triggers reabsorption of H2O in the collecting ducts Facultative water reabsorption occurs in the presence of ADH so that 99% of H2O in filtrate is reabsorbed

36 Diuretics Chemicals that enhance the urinary output
Osmotic diuretics: substances not reabsorbed, (e.g., high glucose in a diabetic patient) ADH inhibitors such as alcohol Substances that inhibit Na+ reabsorption and obligatory H2O reabsorption such as caffeine and many drugs Loop diuretics – Lasix Acts on the ascending loop of Henle to prevent the medullary gradient from forming

37 Volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance in a given time
Renal Clearance Volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance in a given time Renal clearance tests are used to Determine GFR Detect glomerular damage Follow the progress of renal disease

38 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Color and transparency Clear, pale to deep yellow (due to urochrome) Drugs, vitamin supplements, and diet can alter the color Cloudy urine may indicate a urinary tract infection

39 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Odor Slightly aromatic when fresh Develops ammonia odor upon standing May be altered by some drugs and vegetables

40 Physical Characteristics of Urine
Slightly acidic (~pH 6, with a range of 4.5 to 8.0) Diet, prolonged vomiting, or urinary tract infections may alter pH Specific gravity 1.001 to 1.035, dependent on solute concentration

41 Chemical Composition of Urine
95% water and 5% solutes Nitrogenous wastes: urea, uric acid, and creatinine Other normal solutes Na+, K+, PO43–, and SO42–, Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3– Abnormally high concentrations of any constituent may indicate pathology Urea is the highest component by weight besides water Blood or proteins may indicate a problem

42 Ureters Convey urine from kidneys to bladder Retroperitoneal
Enter the base of the bladder through the posterior wall As bladder pressure increases, distal ends of the ureters close, preventing backflow of urine

43 Three layers of wall of ureter
Ureters Three layers of wall of ureter Lining of transitional epithelium Smooth muscle muscularis Contracts in response to stretch Outer adventitia of fibrous connective tissue

44 Kidney stones form in renal pelvis
Renal Calculi Kidney stones form in renal pelvis Crystallized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid salts Larger stones block ureter, cause pressure and pain in kidneys May be due to chronic bacterial infection, urine retention, Ca2+ in blood, pH of urine

45 Urinary Bladder Muscular sac for temporary storage of urine
Retroperitoneal, on pelvic floor posterior to pubic symphysis Males—prostate gland surrounds the neck inferiorly Females—anterior to the vagina and uterus

46 Urinary Bladder Trigone
Smooth triangular area outlined by the openings for the ureters and the urethra Infections tend to persist in this region

47 Urinary Bladder Layers of the bladder wall Collapses when empty
Transitional epithelial mucosa Thick detrusor muscle (three layers of smooth muscle) Fibrous adventitia (peritoneum on superior surface only) Collapses when empty Expands and rises superiorly during filling without significant rise in internal pressure

48 Urethra Muscular tube Thin-walled muscular tube
Drains urine from bladder out of body Females 3-4 cm Males 20 cm Female urethra (3–4 cm): Tightly bound to the anterior vaginal wall External urethral orifice is anterior to the vaginal opening, posterior to the clitoris Male urethra Carries semen and urine Three named regions Prostatic urethra (2.5 cm)—within prostate gland Membranous urethra (2 cm)—passes through the urogenital diaphragm Spongy urethra (15 cm)—passes through the penis and opens via the external urethral orifice

49 Urethra Sphincters Internal urethral sphincter
Involuntary (smooth muscle) at bladder-urethra junction Contracts to open External urethral sphincter Voluntary (skeletal) muscle surrounding the urethra as it passes through the pelvic floor

50 Three simultaneous events
Micturition Urination or voiding Three simultaneous events Contraction of detrusor muscle by ANS Opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS Opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system

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