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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 25 The Urinary System
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urinary System Organs Kidneys are major excretory organs Urinary bladder is the temporary storage reservoir for urine Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder Urethra transports urine out of the body
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Kidney Functions Removal of toxins, metabolic wastes, and excess ions from the blood Regulation of blood volume, chemical composition, and pH Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting Endocrine functions Renin: regulation of blood pressure and kidney function Erythropoietin: regulation of RBC production Activation of vitamin D
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Kidney Anatomy Retroperitoneal, in the superior lumbar region Right kidney is lower than the left Convex lateral surface, concave medial surface Renal hilum leads to the renal sinus Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves enter and exit at the hilum
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Kidney Anatomy Layers of supportive tissue 1.Renal fascia-outer layer The anchoring outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue 2.Perirenal fat capsule-surrounds the kidney A fatty cushion 3.Fibrous capsule-transparent capsule Prevents spread of infection to kidney
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Internal Anatomy Renal cortex A granular superficial region Renal medulla The cone-shaped medullary (renal) pyramids separated by renal columns Lobe A medullary pyramid and its surrounding cortical tissue
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Internal Anatomy Papilla Tip of pyramid; releases urine into minor calyx Renal pelvis The funnel-shaped tube within the renal sinus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Internal Anatomy Major calyces The branching channels of the renal pelvis that Collect urine from minor calyces Empty urine into the pelvis Urine flows from the pelvis to ureter
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Blood and Nerve Supply Renal arteries deliver ~ 1 / 4 (1200 ml) of cardiac output to the kidneys each minute Arterial flow into and venous flow out of the kidneys follow similar paths Nerve supply is via sympathetic fibers from the renal plexus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 25.4b Aorta Renal artery Segmental artery Interlobar artery Arcuate artery Cortical radiate artery Afferent arteriole Glomerulus (capillaries) Inferior vena cava Renal vein Interlobar vein Arcuate vein Cortical radiate vein Peritubular capillaries and vasa recta Efferent arteriole (b) Path of blood flow through renal blood vessels
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephrons Structural and functional units that form urine Two main parts 1.Glomerulus: a tuft of capillaries 2.Renal tubule: begins as cup-shaped glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule surrounding the glomerulus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephrons Renal corpuscle Glomerulus + its glomerular capsule Fenestrated glomerular endothelium Allows filtrate to pass from plasma into the glomerular capsule
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Renal Tubule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Cuboidal cells with dense microvilli and large mitochondria Functions in reabsorption and secretion Confined to the cortex
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Renal Tubule Loop of Henle with descending and ascending limbs Thin segment usually in descending limb Simple squamous epithelium Freely permeable to water Thick segment of ascending limb Cuboidal to columnar cells
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Renal Tubule Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Cuboidal cells with very few microvilli Function more in secretion than reabsorption Confined to the cortex
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Collecting Ducts Receive filtrate from many nephrons Fuse together to deliver urine through papillae into minor calyces
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephrons Cortical nephrons—85% of nephrons; almost entirely in the cortex Juxtamedullary nephrons Long loops of Henle deeply invade the medulla Extensive thin segments Important in the production of concentrated urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephron Capillary Beds 1.Glomerulus Afferent arteriole glomerulus efferent arteriole Specialized for filtration Blood pressure is high because Afferent arterioles are smaller in diameter than efferent arterioles Arterioles are high-resistance vessels
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephron Capillary Beds 2.Peritubular capillaries Low-pressure, porous capillaries adapted for absorption Arise from efferent arterioles Cling to adjacent renal tubules in cortex Empty into venules
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nephron Capillary Beds 3.Vasa recta Long vessels parallel to long loops of Henle Arise from efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons Function information of concentrated urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus (JGA) One per nephron Important in regulation of filtrate formation and blood pressure Portion of the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle comes into contact with the afferent arteriole Important in the regulation of renin and monitoring NaCl content of filtrate
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Kidney Physiology: Mechanisms of Urine Formation The kidneys filter the body’s entire plasma volume 60 times each day Filtrate Blood plasma minus proteins Urine <1% of total filtrate Contains metabolic wastes and unneeded substances
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanisms of Urine Formation 1.Glomerular filtration 2.Tubular reabsorption Returns all glucose and amino acids, 99% of water, salt, and other components to the blood 3.Tubular secretion Reverse of reabsoprtion: selective addition to urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Volume of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys (normal: 120–125 ml/min) Governed by (and directly proportional to) Total surface area available for filtration Filtration membrane permeability Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) - The pressure responsible for filtrate formation (10 mm Hg)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Extrinsic Controls: Sympathetic Nervous System Under normal conditions at rest Renal blood vessels are dilated Renal autoregulation mechanisms prevail Under extreme stress Norepinephrine and epinepherine are released Both cause constriction of afferent arterioles, inhibiting filtration and triggering the release of renin
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Angiotensin II 1.Constricts arteriolar smooth muscle, causing MAP to rise 2.Stimulates the reabsorption of Na + Acts directly on the renal tubules Triggers adrenal cortex to release aldosterone 3.Stimulates the hypothalamus to release ADH and activates the thirst center
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Effects of Angiotensin II 4.Constricts efferent arterioles, decreasing peritubular capillary hydrostatic pressure and increasing fluid reabsorption 5.Causes glomerular mesangial cells to contract, decreasing the surface area available for filtration
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tubular Reabsorption A selective transepithelial process All organic nutrients are reabsorbed Water and ion reabsorption are hormonally regulated Na + (most abundant cation in filtrate) Other ions also reabsorbed – Ca 2+, Mg 2+, K +
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts PCT Site of most reabsorption 65% of Na + and water All nutrients Ions Small proteins
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts Loop of Henle Descending limb: H 2 O Ascending limb: Na +, K +, Cl
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reabsorptive Capabilities of Renal Tubules and Collecting Ducts DCT and collecting duct Reabsorption is hormonally regulated Ca 2+ (PTH) Water (ADH) Na + (aldosterone and ANP)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tubular Secretion Reabsorption in reverse K +, H +, NH 4 +, creatinine, and organic acids move from peritubular capillaries or tubule cells into filtrate Disposes of substances that are bound to plasma proteins
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Tubular Secretion Importance of Tubular Secretion Eliminates undesirable substances that have been passively reabsorbed (e.g., urea and uric acid) Rids the body of excess K + Controls blood pH by altering amounts of H + or HCO 3 – in urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Dilute Urine Filtrate is diluted in the ascending loop of Henle In the absence of ADH, dilute filtrate continues into the renal pelvis as dilute urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Concentrated Urine Depends on the medullary osmotic gradient and ADH ADH triggers reabsorption of H 2 O in the collecting ducts Facultative water reabsorption occurs in the presence of ADH so that 99% of H 2 O in filtrate is reabsorbed
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Diuretics Chemicals that enhance the urinary output Osmotic diuretics: substances not reabsorbed, (e.g., high glucose in a diabetic patient) ADH inhibitors such as alcohol Substances that inhibit Na + reabsorption and obligatory H 2 O reabsorption such as caffeine and many drugs Loop diuretics – Lasix Acts on the ascending loop of Henle to prevent the medullary gradient from forming
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Renal Clearance Volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance in a given time Renal clearance tests are used to Determine GFR Detect glomerular damage Follow the progress of renal disease
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Characteristics of Urine Color and transparency Clear, pale to deep yellow (due to urochrome) Drugs, vitamin supplements, and diet can alter the color Cloudy urine may indicate a urinary tract infection
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Characteristics of Urine Odor Slightly aromatic when fresh Develops ammonia odor upon standing May be altered by some drugs and vegetables
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Characteristics of Urine pH Slightly acidic (~pH 6, with a range of 4.5 to 8.0) Diet, prolonged vomiting, or urinary tract infections may alter pH Specific gravity 1.001 to 1.035, dependent on solute concentration
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chemical Composition of Urine 95% water and 5% solutes Nitrogenous wastes: urea, uric acid, and creatinine Other normal solutes Na +, K +, PO 4 3–, and SO 4 2–, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and HCO 3 – Abnormally high concentrations of any constituent may indicate pathology
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ureters Convey urine from kidneys to bladder Retroperitoneal Enter the base of the bladder through the posterior wall As bladder pressure increases, distal ends of the ureters close, preventing backflow of urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ureters Three layers of wall of ureter 1.Lining of transitional epithelium 2.Smooth muscle muscularis Contracts in response to stretch 3.Outer adventitia of fibrous connective tissue
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Renal Calculi Kidney stones form in renal pelvis Crystallized calcium, magnesium, or uric acid salts Larger stones block ureter, cause pressure and pain in kidneys May be due to chronic bacterial infection, urine retention, Ca 2+ in blood, pH of urine
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urinary Bladder Muscular sac for temporary storage of urine Retroperitoneal, on pelvic floor posterior to pubic symphysis Males—prostate gland surrounds the neck inferiorly Females—anterior to the vagina and uterus
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urinary Bladder Trigone Smooth triangular area outlined by the openings for the ureters and the urethra Infections tend to persist in this region
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urinary Bladder Layers of the bladder wall 1.Transitional epithelial mucosa 2.Thick detrusor muscle (three layers of smooth muscle) 3.Fibrous adventitia (peritoneum on superior surface only) Collapses when empty Expands and rises superiorly during filling without significant rise in internal pressure
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urethra Muscular tube Thin-walled muscular tube Drains urine from bladder out of body Females 3-4 cm Males 20 cm
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Urethra Sphincters Internal urethral sphincter Involuntary (smooth muscle) at bladder- urethra junction Contracts to open External urethral sphincter Voluntary (skeletal) muscle surrounding the urethra as it passes through the pelvic floor
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Micturition Urination or voiding Three simultaneous events 1.Contraction of detrusor muscle by ANS 2.Opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS 3.Opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system
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