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Kidney - External Macro Anatomy. Kidney Anatomy Cortex.

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Presentation on theme: "Kidney - External Macro Anatomy. Kidney Anatomy Cortex."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kidney - External Macro Anatomy

2 Kidney Anatomy Cortex

3 Kidney - Internal Macro Anatomy Base Medulla Papillae Column

4 Nephron Renal Corpuscle Renal Tubule

5 Renal Corpuscle Renal corpuscle – Site of fluid filtration – 2 components glomerulus – group of capillary loops – fed by afferent arteriole – removed by efferent arteriole glomerular (Bowman's) capsule – double walled epithelial cup – outer wall (parietal layer) separated from inner wall (visceral layer) by capsular (Bowman's) space

6 Nephron Renal tubule - where filtered fluid passes from capsule – proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) – distal convoluted tubule (DCT) – loop of Henle (nephron loop) – short connecting tubules – collecting ducts – merge to papillary duct then to minor calyx 30 pap ducts/papillae

7 Nephron Cortical vs. juxtamedullary nephrons – Name depends on length of LofH – 15-20% have long loops and  reabsorptive capabilities

8 Renal Corpuscle Histology Each nephron portion has distinctive features Histology of Glomerular filter – Three layers of tissue – From inside to out prevents movement of progressively smaller particles

9 Renal Corpuscle Histology 1) Endothelium of glomerulus – Single layer of endothelium w/ fenestrations – Restricts RBC movement

10 Renal Corpuscle Histology 2) Basement membrane of glomerulus – Between endothelium and visceral layer of glom capsule – Prevents large protein movement

11 Renal Corpuscle Histology 3) Filtration slits in podocytes – Podocytes specialized epithelium of visceral layer footlike extensions w/ slits between extensions – Restrict medium-sized proteins

12 Renal Corpuscle Histology

13 Tubule Histology In general, tubule is a single layer of epithelial cells on basement membrane PCT – cuboidal w/ brush border of microvilli on apical border –  surface area for reabsorption

14 Tubule Histology Descending loop of Henle, beginning of ascending loop – simple squamous epithelium – only permeable to water Remainder of ascending loop – cuboidal to low columnar epithelium – only permeable to ions

15 Tubule Histology DCT, collecting ducts - cuboidal w/ some modifications in late DCT collecting ducts – principal cells – intercalated cells

16 Tubule Histology – Macula Densa special cells in this area monitor Na + Cl - content in blood able to work w/ JG cells – Both work together to regulate BP – Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells modified smooth muscle secrete vasoconstrictors Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) – Ascending LofH contacts afferent arteriole

17 Renal Blood Supply Important in italics – Renal artery 20-25% of resting CO 1200 ml/min – Segmental arteries – Interlobar arteries - through columns – Arcuate arteries – Interlobular arteries

18 Renal Blood Supply Important in Italics – Afferent arterioles - each renal corpuscle receives 1 – Glomerular caps – Efferent arterioles - drain blood from glomerulus – Peritubular caps - around PCT and DCT – Vasa recta - long loop from efferent arteriole around LofH

19 Renal Blood Supply Important in italics – Interlobular veins – Arcuate veins – Interlobar veins – Segmental veins – Renal veins - exits hilus

20 Renal Nerve Supply Nerves from renal plexus of SNS Vasomotor nerves that accompany renal arteries and branches – What is the role of SNS stimulation on renal blood flow? – Fight or flight – Decrease flow

21 The Final Common Pathway Ureter – extension of kidney pelvis – enter bladder medially from posterior Histology - 3 layers – mucosa mucous membrane w/ transitional epithelium secrete mucous – muscularis - smooth inner longitudinal outer circular – serosa

22 The Final Common Pathway Urinary bladder – hollow muscular organ – generally smaller in females due to uterus – retroperitoneally in pelvic cavity posteriorly to pelvic symphysis – freely movable Structure - trigone

23 The Final Common Pathway Histology – mucosa - mucous membrane of transitional epithelium and underlying lamina propria – muscularis detrusor muscle 3 layers of inner longitudinal, mid circular, outer longitudinal around opening to urethra – circular fibers form internal urethral sphincter – lower is external urethral sphincter - skeletal muscle for control – serosa - peritoneum

24 The Final Common Pathway

25 Urethra – small tube from floor of bladder to exterior of body females fairly straight path out through vagina males passes through the prostate gland – histology female three coats – inner mucous, intermediate thin layer of spongy tissue w/ plexus of veins – outer muscular coat continuous w/ bladder male two layers – inner mucous membrane – outer submucous tissue connects w/ structures that it passes


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