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Kidney - External Macro Anatomy

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Presentation on theme: "Kidney - External Macro Anatomy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kidney - External Macro Anatomy

2 Kidney Anatomy Cortex

3 Kidney - Internal Macro Anatomy
Column Papillae Base Medulla

4 Nephron Renal Tubule Renal Corpuscle

5 Renal Corpuscle Renal corpuscle Site of fluid filtration 2 components
glomerulus group of capillary loops fed by afferent arteriole removed by efferent arteriole glomerular (Bowman's) capsule double walled epithelial cup outer wall (parietal layer) separated from inner wall (visceral layer) by capsular (Bowman's) space

6 Nephron Renal tubule - where filtered fluid passes from capsule
proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) loop of Henle (nephron loop) distal convoluted tubule (DCT) short connecting tubules collecting ducts merge to papillary duct then to minor calyx 30 pap ducts/papillae

7 Nephron Cortical vs. juxtamedullary nephrons
Name depends on length of LofH 15-20% have long loops and  reabsorptive capabilities

8 Renal Corpuscle Histology
Each nephron portion has distinctive features Histology of Glomerular filter Three layers of tissue From inside to out prevents movement of progressively smaller particles

9 Renal Corpuscle Histology
Endothelium of glomerulus Single layer of endothelium w/ fenestrations Restricts RBC movement

10 Renal Corpuscle Histology
Basement membrane of glomerulus Between endothelium and visceral layer of glom capsule Prevents large protein movement

11 Renal Corpuscle Histology
Filtration slits in podocytes Podocytes specialized epithelium of visceral layer footlike extensions w/ slits between extensions Restrict medium-sized proteins

12 Renal Corpuscle Histology

13 Tubule Histology In general, tubule is a single layer of epithelial cells on basement membrane PCT cuboidal w/ brush border of microvilli on apical border  surface area for reabsorption

14 Tubule Histology Descending loop of Henle, beginning of ascending loop
simple squamous epithelium only permeable to water Remainder of ascending loop cuboidal to low columnar epithelium only permeable to ions

15 Tubule Histology DCT, collecting ducts - cuboidal w/ some modifications in late DCT collecting ducts principal cells intercalated cells

16 Tubule Histology Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)
Ascending LofH contacts afferent arteriole Macula Densa special cells in this area monitor Na+Cl- content in blood able to work w/ JG cells Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells modified smooth muscle secrete vasoconstrictors Both work together to regulate BP

17 Renal Blood Supply Important in italics Renal artery
20-25% of resting CO 1200 ml/min Segmental arteries Interlobar arteries - through columns Arcuate arteries Interlobular arteries

18 Renal Blood Supply Important in Italics
Afferent arterioles - each renal corpuscle receives 1 Glomerular caps Efferent arterioles - drain blood from glomerulus Peritubular caps - around PCT and DCT Vasa recta - long loop from efferent arteriole around LofH

19 Renal Blood Supply Important in italics Interlobular veins
Arcuate veins Interlobar veins Segmental veins Renal veins - exits hilus

20 Renal Nerve Supply Nerves from renal plexus of SNS
Vasomotor nerves that accompany renal arteries and branches What is the role of SNS stimulation on renal blood flow? Fight or flight Decrease flow

21 The Final Common Pathway
Ureter extension of kidney pelvis enter bladder medially from posterior Histology - 3 layers mucosa mucous membrane w/ transitional epithelium secrete mucous muscularis - smooth inner longitudinal outer circular serosa

22 The Final Common Pathway
Urinary bladder hollow muscular organ generally smaller in females due to uterus retroperitoneally in pelvic cavity posteriorly to pelvic symphysis freely movable Structure - trigone

23 The Final Common Pathway
Histology mucosa - mucous membrane of transitional epithelium and underlying lamina propria muscularis detrusor muscle 3 layers of inner longitudinal, mid circular, outer longitudinal around opening to urethra circular fibers form internal urethral sphincter lower is external urethral sphincter - skeletal muscle for control serosa - peritoneum

24 The Final Common Pathway

25 The Final Common Pathway
Urethra small tube from floor of bladder to exterior of body females fairly straight path out through vagina males passes through the prostate gland histology female three coats inner mucous, intermediate thin layer of spongy tissue w/ plexus of veins outer muscular coat continuous w/ bladder male two layers inner mucous membrane outer submucous tissue connects w/ structures that it passes

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