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States of Consciousness. Sleep and Dreams Hypnosis Drugs and Consciousness Near-Death Experiences Meditation States of Consciousness.

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Presentation on theme: "States of Consciousness. Sleep and Dreams Hypnosis Drugs and Consciousness Near-Death Experiences Meditation States of Consciousness."— Presentation transcript:

1 States of Consciousness

2 Sleep and Dreams Hypnosis Drugs and Consciousness Near-Death Experiences Meditation States of Consciousness

3 Forms of Consciousness Spontaneous: daydreaming, drowsiness, dreaming Physiologically Induced: hallucinations, pain, hunger, lack of oxygen Psychologically induced: sensory deprivation, hypnosis, meditation

4 Selective Attention Our conscious awareness processes only a small part of all that we experience. We intuitively make use of the information we are not consciously aware of.

5 Inattentional Blindness Simons & Chabris (1999) Univ. Illinois

6 Change Blindness Change blindness is a form of inattentional blindness in which two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. © 1998 Psychonomic Society Inc. Image provided courtesy of Daniel J. Simmons.

7 Sleep & Dreams

8 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythms:“About a Day” – our biological clock Body temperature, sleep/wake cycle, heart rate, hormone levels, neurotransmitter release Light  suprachiasmatic nucleus decreases pineal melatonin No Light  SCN increases pineal melatonin

9 Measuring Sleep

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11 Sleep Cycle: each 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages. Sleep Stages Hank Morgan/ Rainbow Eye Muscle Brain Measuring Sleep

12 Sleep Stages  Awake, eyes closed  Sleep: Stage 1  Sleep: Stage 2  Sleep: Stage 3/4  Sleep: REM Brain (EEG) Stage Awake nonREM REM

13 Stages of Sleep Rapid Eye Movement Sleep non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Awake REM nonREM EEG EMG EOG

14 REM Sleep “Awake” EEG Muscular (skeletal) paralysis Eye movement Dreaming is common

15 90-Minute Sleep Cycles Time asleep Stage 4 REM

16 Accidents Sleep  Accidents

17 Sleep Theories Protection: avoid danger Conserve energy Recovery/Repair: restore and repair brain tissue. (  exercise,  sleep) Memory: build memories. (  sleep,  memory) Growth: growth hormone (GH) released. (Older people:  growth hormone,  sleep)

18 Sleep’s role in recovery/repair Growth hormone is released during the deep stages of sleep. deep sleep Sleep onset

19 Recovery/Repair Longer sleep time improves the function of the immune system and helps fight off infection ↑Number of white blood cells More sleep = more immune system cells Less sleep = fewer immune system cells

20 Neuronal Energy Production In wake promoting areas of the brain, ATP (the energy currency of brain cells) increases during the first few hours of sleep. This surge in ATP increases with deeper stages of sleep.

21 1/3 of life asleep! Sleep Deprivation Fatigue and subsequent death Impaired concentration Emotional irritability Depressed immune system Greater vulnerability Why Sleep?

22 % of physicians reporting a serious conflict with co-workers Sleep loss impairs social interactions Less sleep leads to more arguments More sleep leads to fewer arguments

23 Sleep habits influence physical health Short sleep times (≤7 hrs per night) are associated with increased: Appetite Body mass (obesity) Risk of diabetes Risk of cancer Incidence of cardiovascular disease

24 Why Sleep? Sleep is essential for life. World record for no sleep = days ( hours) 18 days? Hallucinations, vision/speech/memory problems but with full recovery.

25 Animal Sleep 20 hr 18 hr 16 hr 13 hr 4 hr 3 hr

26 Unusual Animal Sleep New calves/mothers: No sleep for 3 weeks!

27 Unusual Animal Sleep

28 Brain Mechanisms AWAKE Brain stem (reticular activating system) (locus coeruleus) (raphe n.) Awake EEG desyn Stimulate ACh 5-HT NE Histamine Hypocretin

29 Brain Mechanisms Non-REM Brain stem (reticular activating system) (locus coeruleus) (raphe n.) Sleep EEG Syn ACh 5-HT NE

30 Brain Mechanisms REM Brain stem (reticular activating system) (locus coeruleus) (raphe n.) Sleep EEG desyn No muscle ACh 5-HT NE

31 Brain Mechanisms Cerebral Cortex Thalamus Brainstem

32 Discover Sleep Dream Journal REM “Detective”

33 Insomnia: Persistent inability to fall asleep. (30-40%) Narcolepsy: Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up. Sleep apnea: Failure to breathe when asleep. (2-3%) Night terrors: Sudden arousal from sleep, intense fear, rapid heart rate, sweating, Stage 4 disorder. Sleepwalking: Stage 4 disorder, usually harmless, no recall (1-15%) Sleeptalking: Stage 1-4 disorder, runs in families Restless Legs Syndrome: unusual feelings at bedtime (10%) Sleep Disorders

34 Why Dream? Wish Fulfillment (Freud): safety valve to discharge unacceptable feelings; symbolic meanings. Problem: Theory lacks support; interpretation of dreams difficult. Information Processing: Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. Problem: dreams can contain events not experienced. Sigmund Freud ( )

35 Why Dream? Physiological Function: Develop neural pathways. Babies develop many new neural connection and require more sleep. Cognitive Development: Brain maturation and cognitive development.

36 Why Dream? Activation-Synthesis Theory: random neural activity; dreams attempt to make sense of this activity. REM sleep is essential! If deprived of REM sleep, REM rebound occurs.

37 Hypnosis Hypnos: Greek god of sleep One person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.

38 Hypnosis: Facts and Myths Power of Suggestion Can anyone experience hypnosis? Yes, to some extent. Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? No. Can hypnosis be therapeutic? Yes. Can hypnosis alleviate pain? Yes. Can hypnosis force people to act against their will? No.

39 What Causes Hypnosis? Social Influence Theory: Playing acting; expectations. Divided Consciousness Theory: Special state of consciousness

40 Example Bad smell  attention is diverted Social Influence Theory: told to ignore smell Divided Consciousness Theory: consciousness/awareness split

41 Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug: A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood (affects consciousness). Heroin Inhalants LSD Marijuana Nicotine PCP Rohypnol 1,4-Butanediol Alcohol Amphetamines Barbiturates Caffeine Cocaine Ecstasy GHB Hallucinogenic Mushrooms

42 Dependence & Addiction Continued use of a psychoactive drug produces tolerance. With repeated exposure to a drug, the drug’s effect lessens. Thus it takes greater quantities to get the desired effect.

43 Withdrawal & Dependence Withdrawal: Upon stopping use of a drug (after addiction), users may experience the undesirable effects of withdrawal. Dependence: Absence of a drug may lead to a feeling of physical pain, intense cravings (physical dependence), and negative emotions (psychological dependence).

44 Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs are divided into three groups. 1.Depressants 2.Stimulants 3.Hallucinogens

45 Depressants Depressants: reduce neural activity and slow body functions. 1.Alcohol 2.Barbiturates 3.Opiates

46 Depressants Alcohol: affects motor skills, judgment, and memory; increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness. Drinking and Driving Daniel Hommer, NIAAA, NIH, HHS Ray Ng/ Time & Life Pictures/ Getty Images

47 Depressants Barbiturates: reduce the activity of the central nervous system; reduce anxiety but impair memory and judgment. Opiates (morphine and heroin): reduce neural activity, reduce pain and anxiety; highly addictive.

48 Stimulants Stimulants: excite neural activity and speed up body functions. Caffeine Nicotine Cocaine Ecstasy Amphetamines Methamphetamines

49 Caffeine & Nicotine Caffeine and nicotine increase heart and breathing rates and other autonomic functions to provide energy.

50 Why Do People Smoke? 1.Socially rewarding. 2.Genetic factors. 3.Reduce unpleasant cravings 4.Rewarding

51 Cocaine Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected.

52 Ecstasy (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) Stimulant, mild hallucinogen. Can damage serotonin-producing neurons Possible depression, memory problems.

53 Image courtesy of Dr. GA Ricaurte, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

54 LSD: (lysergic acid diethylamide) powerful hallucinogenic drug. THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol): major active ingredient in marijuana (hemp plant) Hemp Plant Hallucinogens Distort perceptions; create sensory images without sensory input.

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59 Drugs Summary

60 After a close brush with death, many people report an experience of moving through a dark tunnel with a light at the end. Under the influence of hallucinogens, others report bright lights at the center of their field of vision. Near-Death Experiences (From “Hallucinations” by R.K. Siegel. Copyright © 1977 Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved.)


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