9WithdrawalThe discomfort and distress that follow when a person who is dependent on a drug discontinues the use of the drugWithdrawal symptoms are usually the opposite of the drug’s effects – Drug Rebound Effect
10Why do people abuse drugs? Biopsychosocial Theory
12NeurotransmissionThe process whereby neurons communicate with each otherNeurotransmission, especially in the brain and spinal cord, helps explain the effects of psychoactive drugs.Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neurotransmission.
13NeurotransmittersChemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neuronsWhen released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, setting up the next link in the chain of communication.
14SynapseThe junction between the tip of the sending neuron and the receptor sites on the receiving neuronCall the synaptic gap or cleft
19Psychoactive Drugs and Synapses Psychoactive drugs affect synapses and neurotransmitters in three ways:Binding with receptor sites (mimics)*Blocking receptor siteBlocking neurotransmitters’ reuptake** Increase the likelihood of the receiving neuron firing
22Four Psychoactive Drug Categories Four different categories we will study:Depressants – depress, inhibit brain activityOpiates – Similar to morphine, produce feelings of euphoria & reduce painStimulants – excite brain activityPsychedelic/Hallucinogens/Marijuana – distort sensory perceptions.Designer “Club” Drugs – “fifth category” that includes variety of psychoactive drugs.
29What do we mean by “one drink?” One 12-ounce can of beer has about the same amount of alcohol as 4 ounces of wine or 1 ounce of whiskey
30Euphoric Affects of Alcohol Alcohol impairs the parts of the brain responsible for controlling inhibitions and making judgmentsResults in less self-control and sometimes more aggressive behavior.Also depends on environment and expectations.
31Alcohol, Memory, and Sleep Studies have shown that alcohol impairs memory by suppressing the processing of events into long term memory.Alcohol impairs REM sleep, further disrupting memory storage.Also impairs speech and physical functioning.Death can occur if the brain’s respiratory center can no longer function.
32Alcohol’s Affect on the Brain Alcoholism shrinks the brain
35Sedatives Drugs that reduce anxiety or induce sleep Also called tranquilizersInclude barbiturates and benzodiazepines
36BarbituratesDrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system and thereby reduce anxietyCan be lethal in overdose and interact with other drugs, especially alcoholImpair both memory and judgmentCan create tolerance and physical & mental dependenceWithdrawal can cause REM rebound nightmares, hallucinations, disorientation and even life-threatening convulsions.
37Benzodiazepines/Tranquilizers Drugs that depress that activity of the central nervous system without most of the side effects associated with barbituratesHelp to reduce anxietyInclude Valium and XanaxCan create dependency
38Inhalants Chemicals that are inhaled to alter consciousness. Paint, glue, gasoline, nitrous oxide & aerosol sprays.Low doses may relax and reduce inhibitionHigh doses can cause hallucinations and loss of consciousness.Toxic to the liver and other organs.
39Addiction and Depressants Play “Depressants and Their Addictive Effect on the Brain” (4:24) Segment #22 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition).How does withdrawal occur?What’s happening to the neurons of an addict?How are these drugs suppressing the nervous system?
46StimulantsDrugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functionsInclude: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaineAll are at least mildly addictive.
47CaffeineStimulant found in coffee, chocolate, tea, and some soft drinksProvides user with a sense of increased energy, mental alertness, and forced wakefulnessBlocks neurological receptor sites that if activated, sedate the central nervous systemWithdrawal symptoms are sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, insomnia, increased heart rate.
48Nicotine Stimulant found in tobacco Effects similar to those of caffeine – reduces fatigue & drowsiness and increases mental alertnessAffects various areas in the brain affecting mood, attention & arousalVery addictive and does not stay in the body very longSee video clip on nicotine addiction.
49Cocaine Stimulant derived from leaves of the coca plant Crack – cocaine crystalsBlocks the reuptake of certain neurotransmittersDependency is quick and severe; places extreme strain on cardiovascular systemSee the story of Len Bias (4 min)Can cause cocaine psychosis – schizophrenia-like symptoms including auditory hallucinations & paranoia, “cocaine bugs” or tactile hallucinations
51AmphetaminesDrugs that stimulate neural activity, speeding up body functions, with associated energy and mood changesIncludes: speed, uppers, and methamphetaminesMimic adrenalineCan cause irreversible changes in mood & function by reducing dopamine receptors & transporters.Withdrawal causes fatigue, deep sleep, intense depression, increase in appetite.
53Hallucinogens/Psychedelic Drugs Drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputInclude: LSD, Mescaline and Marijuana
54Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Powerful hallucinogenic drugAlso known as “acid”The effects vary from person to personUsers can be dangerous to themselves and others.Similar to neurotransmitter, serotonin.Flashbacks, psychotic reactions can occur.
55Hallucinogen AffectHallucination - like patterns Geometric forms, similar to those experienced by drug users during drug - induced hallucinations, can be seen in the embroidery of the Huichol. These Mexican Indians used peyote, from which the hallucinogen mescaline derives.
56Marijuana Leaves, stems, resin, and flowers form the hemp plant When smoked, lower inhibitions and produce feelings of relaxation and mild euphoriaTHC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient. Receptors in the brain for anandamide also accept THCDisrupts memory; lung damage from smokeWithdrawal may cause insomnia, tremors and decreased appetite.Is helpful in decreasing nausea and reducing effects of glaucoma.
58EcstasyHallucinogenic drug that produces lower inhibitions, pleasant feelings, and greater acceptance of othersAlso called MDMABlocks serotonin reuptake prolonging its “good” feelingEven moderate users may experience permanent brain damage to serotonin nerve endings & even memory and verbal reasoning problems up to a year later.Dehydration, rapid heartbeat, tremors, muscle tension, teeth clenching & high body temp can result.
59Other “Club” Drugs: Dissociative Anesthetics Dissociative anesthetics—include PCP and Ketamine.Deaden pain, produce stupor or coma, may induce hallucinationsCreate feelings of dissociation & depersonalizationPCP or angel dust, ketamineEffects of “trips” differ for each personCan result in hyperthermia (high body temp), convulsions & death.Affects neurotransmitter glutamate causing a release of more dopamine in the brain.Highly addictive.Long term effects can be memory loss and depression.
63TreatmentPlay “Treating Drug Addiction: A Behavioral Approach” (19:40) Segment #30 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition). Watch if time allows.What become “triggers” for addicts?How do addicts’ bodies react to “triggers?”Describe how this treatment works.Describe what withdrawal/addiction is like?What do brain scans show about addicts’ brains?