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The Governance of Curriculum & the Plight of Māori Edmund Husserl.

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1 The Governance of Curriculum & the Plight of Māori Edmund Husserl

2 Abstract Possibly the most critical interface between indigenous peoples and western culture is democratic practice. In state-funded education, Maori are involved in democratic processes which determine the content of the curriculum and the resources available for schooling. These processes are pervasive influences on Maori children. Democracy holds an inherent disadvantage for minorities. To overcome democracy as a barrier to the reification of indigenous culture it is first necessary to understand the nature of democracy itself. Husserl's phenomenological method enables us to discern the inner nature of democracy, which is a method of decision-making with surprising features. This paper sets out the some of the phenomenological characteristics of democracy and suggests their relevance in the governance of curriculum and educational resources.

3 Today Preliminaries Method of enquiry An enquiry Principal finding Implications for education Implications for Maori

4 Today Preliminaries – schools & government Method of enquiry - phenomenology An enquiry – a search for essence in UK,USA, NZ Principal finding – phenomena of the vote Implications for education Implications for Maori

5 Preliminaries New Zealand schools are part of a system of local government. Leading characteristic of the system is central control with local delivery. The most important determinant of what occurs is the relative influence of central and local actors. This shows in: Resource allocation Curriculum Political actions Decision-making mechanisms Development projects Research.

6 Models of local government Prisons Courts Schools Hospitals Armed forces Auckland Super City District & city councils Universities

7 Perspectives

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9 Local government (including education) Described through purposes Functions Structures (infra-structure) Products (includes trained & innovative workers) Services Roles Rewards achievements Research Funded by the system To improve policy & practice

10 My search for another method Abhor the incremental See differently Not to explain, nor to fix Abandon fond hopes

11 Phenomenology as method Edmund Husserl ( ) 1907 Lectures The Idea of a Phenomenology 1913 Ideas: General Introduction to Phenomenology Teach yourself to see The lived world Intentionality Making sense Bracketing (reduction) Essences Experience of truth

12 Phenomenology as method Letting yourself be with phenomena Be with local government Follow your feet Let it dawn upon you

13 The essence of local government The phenomena of the vote Found as the event/practice Not: services facilities political theory buildings individuals

14 Characteristics of the vote

15 Decision-making mechanism Compare it with other such mechanisms Vast majority of decisions are in committees Does not require rationality - mechanical Imperative is to make a decision - any decision Resolves incommensurable choice Communal not individual Operative decisions are second decisions

16 The power of the vote Schools Deliver resources to the front line Central decision-making Vote under control in Parliament Weakening of regional decision-making Interim Professional Standards: Professional standards describe the important knowledge, skills and attitudes that all principals, deputy/assistant principals and teachers are expected to demonstrate. Professional standards will form part of performance management systems in schools. The introduction of professional standards is part of the Government's strategy for developing and maintaining the quality of teaching and leadership, and improving learning outcomes for students. The professional standards reflect Government's interest in ensuring that students have opportunities to learn from high quality professional teachers and that schools are led and managed by high quality professionals. C.E. Beeby The Quality of Education in Developing Countries, 1966 Hypothesis of educational stages

17 The growth of the primary school systems StageTeachersCharacteristics I Dame SchoolIll-educated Untrained Unorganised, relatively meaningless symbols,... II FormalismIll-educated Trained Highly organised, rigid syllabus, emphasis on 3 R’s, rigid methods, “one- way is best”, external examinations, inspection stressed, discipline tight and external... III TransitionBetter-educated Trained Roughly the same goals as II, but more efficiently achieved, more emphasis on meaning, but still rather thin and formal, little in classroom to cater for the emotional and creative life of the child. IV MeaningWell-educated Well-trained Meaning & understanding stressed, wider curriculum, individual differences catered for, internal tests...

18 The power of the vote Auckland local government reforms Central initiative Auckland must deliver for the nation Need to strengthen the relationship with Wellington Directs resources at worthwhile goals Alignment of human effort Efficiency Modern technology Local government is about the delivery of services

19 Māori & the vote Local government experience History of local government in New Zealand Municipal Act 1860s Māori structures as local government Why was the mechanism of the vote introduced? Māori decision-making practices – kaupapa Māori in education and elsewhere You cannot be Māori & adopt democracy

20 Māori & the vote Local government experience History of local government in New Zealand Municipal Act 1860s Māori structures as local government Why was the mechanism of the vote introduced? Māori decision-making practices – kaupapa Māori in education and elsewhere You cannot be Māori & adopt democracy

21 Pita Sharples “It seems that these Māori principles that guaranteed that Auckland could survive and grow, would be far more important, even in today's times, than artificial political concoctions such as ‘one vote for one person’, or ‘democratic elections’ which were the principles that were cited to decline the two seats on the super-city council. The Māori kaupapa were principles that promoted ‘equity' and ‘inclusiveness’, surely the ideals of a ‘civilised’ society. We must begin to recognise that democracy has many expressions, many ways of mobilising voices and representation, rather than statically holding onto dominant axioms.”

22 Research programme Decision-making mechanisms Concept of democracy Decision-making by iwi Decision-making in local government Policy and legislative change


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