2 The Welfare State an introduction A welfare state is a state in which organised power is deliberately used (through politics and administration) in an effort to modify the play of market forces.By guaranteeing individuals and families a minimum income irrespective of the market value of their work and propertyBy ensuring that all citizens without distinction of status or class are offered the best standards available in relation to certain agreed range of social services.By narrowing the extent of insecurity by enabling individuals and families to meet certain ‘social contingencies’ (for example sickness, old age and unemployment) which lead otherwise to individual and family crisis.The first and second of these objectives may be accomplished, in part at least, by what used to be called ‘social service state’, a state in which communal resources are employed to abate poverty and to assist those in distress.The third objective brings in the idea of ‘optimum’ rather than the older idea of ‘minimum’. It is concerned not merely with reduction of class differences or the needs of specific groups but with equality of treatment and the aspirations of citizens as voters with equal shares of electoral power.
3 The Welfare State an introduction The first and second of these objectives may be accomplished, in part at least, by what used to be called ‘social service state’, a state in which communal resources are employed to abate poverty and to assist those in distress.The third objective brings in the idea of ‘optimum’ rather than the older idea of ‘minimum’. It is concerned not merely with reduction of class differences or the needs of specific groups but with equality of treatment and the aspirations of citizens as voters with equal shares of electoral power.
4 The Welfare State and its five concepts 1 Market Forces2 Social contingencies3 Organised powerRange of agreed social serviceThe concept of ‘market forces’ sets the problems of the welfare state (and of welfare) within the context of the age of modern political economy.The concept of ‘social contingencies’ is strongly influenced by the experience of industrialism. Sickness, old age where ancient systems placed the responsibility on to the son to support their parents or charities.The idea of using organised power to determine the pattern of welfare services is relatively new. Why not just rely upon the church, charities, family, self help, mutual aid?The ‘range’ of agreed social services’ set out in the provisional definition of ‘welfare state’ is a shifting range.There are important issues to take into account when tracing the relationship between the three different directions of public welfare. The demand for ‘minimum standards’ started in 1909 but did not come into force in Britain until after the second World War and the so called Beveridge Revolution in 1945Minimum standards
6 The Welfare State and Bismarck German experience in the nineteenth centuryLegislation was more advanced in Britain than in any other European countryGermany led in social security legislationwas important in certain respects and different from that of Britain. Before 1900 factory legislation was more advanced in Britain than in any other European country, however, Germany had established a lead in social security legislation. Bismarck’s reforms of the 1880s legislation introduced compulsory insurance against sickness, accidents, old age and invalidity and the claim that Bismarck’s social policy as the creation of the Welfare State.
7 The Welfare State and Bismarck was not without reason in introducing his welfare state.agreed that the state should contribute to the cost of insurance.invocation of ‘subservience’ while his socialist opposition want ‘equality’.argued in 1884 that if the state only showed a little more ‘Christian concern for the working man’ then Social Democracy would sound their ‘siren song in vain’.Bismarck's critics:protested that the welfare state would make workers dependant upon the state.protested workers would put up with a lot – because of the pension that was to come.protested that welfare soothed the spirit, or perhaps tamed it.
8 The Welfare State and the 20th Century Five factors in twentieth-century welfare history:1 Attitude towards poverty2Social contingencies3 Unemployment and welfare policyThe basic transformation in the, which made the nineteenth century poor law no longer practicable in democratic societies.The detailed investigation of the ‘social contingencies which directed attention to the need for particular social policies (ie Rowntree)The close association between.The development within itself of welfare philosophies and practicesThe influence of on the content and tone of welfare legislation.4 Market capitalism5 Working-class pressures
9 The Welfare State and the 20th Century Social security legislation in the 20th century raises many interesting general issues:The relevance of the insurance principle.The relationship between ‘negative’ social policy and ‘positive’ economic policy.The responsibilities of the State.
10 The Welfare State and the 20th Century Industrial bettermentUSA business rather than the StateIn all advanced industrial countries in the 20th C there has been a movement towards welfare in industry – ‘industrial betterment’ it was originally called – which has been accompanied by the emergence of philosophies of ‘human relations’, ‘welfare management’ and industrial labour psychology.Within the State schemes it is expected that welfare employers have made, and are expected to make , sizable contributions. While in the was, and is, expected directly to provide a network of welfare services.
12 Social policy a ‘third way’ approach Third way politicsrefers to the reappraisal of electoral strategy, philosophy and policies conducted by centre-left parties in the US, UK and parts of Europe in the late 1980s and through the 1990s.
13 Social policy a ‘third way’ approach Work consumerism and the New Poor1998 by Sigmund Bauman’s analysis of contemporary British society provides the most fundamental critique of ‘third way’ principles. He suggests that it is not work that is the means of integration, it is money. Without which a person cannot participate in a consumer society.
14 Social policy a ‘third way’ approach “We need to adapt our welfare state to fit in with the way we live”.The need to adapt values and institutions to contemporary social and economic conditions. Tony Blair in 1998 said, “We need to adapt our welfare state to fit in with the way we live”.It is possible to adapt polices that were previously deemed incompatible or associated with conflicting ideologies. Tony Blair spoke of the need to ‘reduce inequalities and tackle the growing underclass’.The emphasis on the need to strike new balance between rights and responsibilities of claimants. Giddens’ says, The new slogan should be ‘no rights without responsibilities’.
15 The Welfare State and the 20th Century Liberalism individualism markets and competitionMarxism class conflict central planning anddirectionFabianism co-operation/ an acceptance of the gradualness market and competition but state planning should be utilised to move towards a fairer society.
16 Fabiansim The Fabian Society Founded in 1884 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb, George Bernard Shaw and HG Wells as a group promoting non-Marxist evolutionary socialism.It is the UK's only membership base left of centre think tank. Providing an arena for open-minded debate, the Society's programme aims to explore the political ideas and the policy reforms which will define progressive politics in the future.
17 New left…Stable management and economic prudence because of the global economy.A change of emphasis in government intervention; education, training and infrastructure not industrial relations.Reform of the welfare state through managed welfare.Reinventing government, decentralisation, opening up government.Internationalism rather than isolationism.
18 The Welfare State and the 21st Century Reducing public spendingIncreasing inequalitySince the early 80s the Governments at the vanguard of welfare states ie Germany, Britain and the Scandinavian countries have been, public services, and some privatisation of welfare.There has been an increasing inequality of wealth, the rich getting richer, the poor , poorer.Concern is growing as a result of this action re quality of citizenship enjoyed by the poorest with some being labelled the underclass.Concern is growing
19 The Welfare State and the 21st Century The cause of the changeEmergence of a ‘deviant’ cultureThe cause of the change of this in the minds of many is the growth of economical inequalities.For others the emergence of a ‘deviant’ culture not by privatisation of welfare but by the encouragement of dependence on the state in the first place.Left and centre parties of the left and centre have abandoned socialist policies in favour of a mixture of privatisation and public approaches. This is called the ‘Third Way’.Left and centre parties have abandoned socialist policies
20 Theology and social contexts Biblical texts must encounter our social context and produce a new way of living for the followers of Jesus.
21 Theology and social contexts When we seek to respond to a situation or question we need to ask ourselves some questions?Who is it for and what is our intention?Are we enabling others through our response?Are we addressing the symptoms or the causes?Who will be involved in the response?What do we hope to achieve?Will our response present the Gospel of Christ?
22 Theology and social contexts How does the church and world meet here? How does biblical text encounter our world? What do we do?
23 The Welfare State and the 21st Century What do you think?Should welfare depend upon a means tested approach?Should there be free service for all at the point of delivery and need?In groups create your Utopian society.Biblical texts must encounter our social context and produce a new way of living for the followers of Jesus.When we seek to respond to a situation or question we need to ask ourselves some questions?Who is it for and what is our intention?Are we enabling others through our response?Are we addressing the symptoms or the causes?Who will be involved in the response?What do we hope to achieve?Will our response present the Gospel of Christ?How does the church and world meet here? How does biblical text encounter our world? What do we do?What should the welfare system of this nation look like?A free market welfare system would be more effective and equitable?