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Sleep and Wakefulness (and Circadian Rhythms). What is Sleep?

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Presentation on theme: "Sleep and Wakefulness (and Circadian Rhythms). What is Sleep?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sleep and Wakefulness (and Circadian Rhythms)

2 What is Sleep?

3 Minimal Behavioral Activity

4 A rapidly reversible state of quiescence

5 Increased Arousal Threshold

6 Species-Specific Posture Tobler and Stadler, 1988

7 Measurement of Sleep

8 Two Types of Sleep Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep –Four different stages (1 [lightest] – 4 [deepest]) –Mixed-frequency EEG low amplitude, high frequency or high amplitude, low frequency –Relatively little muscle movements Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep –Low-amplitude, high frequency EEG –Synchronous eye movements –Paralysis Narcolepsy:


10 Time Course of Sleep

11 Ontogeny of Sleep

12 Neural Control of Sleep

13 Neural Control of (NREM) Sleep Bottom-Up Processing

14 Flip-Flop Circuit Cliff Saper, Bob McCarley, Jerome Siegel

15 Neural Control of (REM) Sleep PGO waves –pons-geniculate-occipital areas OR –Brainstem-Thalamus-Occipital Cortex

16 Brain-Spinal Cord Induction of Paralysis During REM sleep


18 Neural Control of Spindles

19 Really Cool Probing of Sleep- Regulatory Areas With Optogenetics

20 Circadian Rhythms

21 Basic Criteria of Circadian Rhythms Any physiological or behavioral process that oscillates predictably across 24 hrs This rhythm can be shifted by environmental factors (light, drugs, mating) Persist even with the removal of environmental factors (light, seasons)

22 Some Out-of-Phase Physiological Rhythms

23 Rhythms in Humans Nathaniel Kleitman and Eugene Aserinsky

24 Neural (SCN) Control of Rhythms SCN: Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

25 Beyond the SCN: Molecular Control of Rhythms

26 Real-Time Recording of Molecular Feedback in the SCN

27 Working in Tandem Interaction between sleep and circadian brain systems characterized as the “two- process model”

28 More Questions? You can stop by for a lab visit

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