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PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN ALASKA By Raymond RaLonde University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Alaska Sea Grant Program.

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Presentation on theme: "PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN ALASKA By Raymond RaLonde University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Alaska Sea Grant Program."— Presentation transcript:

1 PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING IN ALASKA By Raymond RaLonde University of Alaska Fairbanks School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Alaska Sea Grant Program Marine Advisory Program

2 THE HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM Red tides do not mean poison

3 Alexandrium cantenella Dinoflagellate microalgae Generally eastern Pacific Chain forming Dinoflagellate microalgae Generally eastern Pacific Chain forming WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?

4 Anchorage Fairbanks Juneau Ketchikan Sitka Kodiak Island Baranof Island Prince of Wales Island Kachemak Bay Seward ALASKA PSP OUTBREAK LOCATIONS PSP OUTBREAK LOCATIONS

5 ABOUT THE TOXIN Saxatoxin – –The 24+ toxins are divided into three groups High Toxicity Carbamate Toxins Moderate Toxicity Decarbamoyl Toxins Low Toxicity N-Sulfacarbamoyl Toxins – –Toxins change form and toxicity through the food chain Within the algae based on environmental conditions Within the shellfish based on their metabolism Within the final animal that eats the shellfish Saxatoxin – –The 24+ toxins are divided into three groups High Toxicity Carbamate Toxins Moderate Toxicity Decarbamoyl Toxins Low Toxicity N-Sulfacarbamoyl Toxins – –Toxins change form and toxicity through the food chain Within the algae based on environmental conditions Within the shellfish based on their metabolism Within the final animal that eats the shellfish

6 WHAT IS PSP? Biotoxin (24+ toxins)   Naturally occurring toxin   One of several marine toxins   Appear to be increasing in frequency   Range is expanding   Deadly toxin (~ 1,000 times that of strychnine)   Sodium channel blocking, blocking nervous transmission Biotoxin (24+ toxins)   Naturally occurring toxin   One of several marine toxins   Appear to be increasing in frequency   Range is expanding   Deadly toxin (~ 1,000 times that of strychnine)   Sodium channel blocking, blocking nervous transmission

7 COMPLEX TOXICITY   Toxin Chemistry complex   Algae bloom process not understood   Oceanography complex and variable   Shellfish response differs by species   Toxin Chemistry complex   Algae bloom process not understood   Oceanography complex and variable   Shellfish response differs by species

8 THE TOXINS AND SHELLFISH Toxin types specified by high, moderate, low toxicity forms Shellfish Species High Toxicity Carbamate Toxins Moderate Toxicity Decarbamoyl Toxins Low Toxicity N-Sulfacarbamoyl Toxins Toxic algae GTX-III, STX B1, C2 Blue mussel GTX-III, GTXII, STX C1, C2, B1 Butter clam STX. GTX-II, GTXIII Littleneck clam dc-STX, dc-GTX-II, dc-GTX-III SXT - Saxitoxin GTX - Gonyautoxin dc-(STX,GTX) Decarbamoyl (Saxitoxin, Gonyautoxin) C(1,2) and B(1,2) - Sulfamate

9 THE COMPLEX CHEMISTRY OF PSP

10 MOUSE BIOASSAY THE ONLY APPROVED TEST MOUSE BIOASSAY THE ONLY APPROVED TEST

11 TOXICITY WITHIN THE ALGAE   Algae strain (varying toxicity)   Environmental conditions – –Temperature   Colder conditions cells are more toxic   Colder conditions less reproduction – –Ocean nutrients   Low phosphorus cells are more toxic   High nitrogen more toxin produced   Iron suspected as a requirement for blooms   Algae strain (varying toxicity)   Environmental conditions – –Temperature   Colder conditions cells are more toxic   Colder conditions less reproduction – –Ocean nutrients   Low phosphorus cells are more toxic   High nitrogen more toxin produced   Iron suspected as a requirement for blooms

12 Alexandrium CYST FORMATION Young Germling New Motile Cell Girdle Gametes Pellicle cyst Planozygote Gamete Fusion Sulcus Hypnocyst Vegetative Cell Division Theca plate Alexandrium Life Cycle

13 PLANKTON CYCLES IN THE MARINE WATERS OF ALASKA PLANKTON CYCLES IN THE MARINE WATERS OF ALASKA

14 OTHER NON-TOXIC ALGAE CAN CAUSE A RED TIDE

15 EFFECTS OF WIND AND CURRENTS TWO POSSIBILITIES EFFECTS OF WIND AND CURRENTS TWO POSSIBILITIES Wind River Current Freshwater plume Intense Red tide High toxicity

16 SYMPTOMS OF PSP FROM 143 CASES IN ALASKA FROM SYMPTOMS OF PSP FROM 143 CASES IN ALASKA FROM

17 WHEN DO PSP OUTBREAKS OCCUR? Outbreaks ( )

18 ALL COMMERCIALLY SOLD AND FARMED SHELLFISH HAVE BEEN CERTIFIED

19

20 BUTTER CLAM/LITTENECK CLAM COMPARISON BLASHKE ISLANDS Date Butter clams Littleneck clams 13-Jan Sep Oct Oct

21 LITTLENECK CLAM Seldovia Bay 8/19/97

22 BUTTER CLAM PSP Seldovia Bay 8/19/97 6/2/99 2/26/98 5/15/98 1/20/99

23

24 IS YOUR LIFE WORTH 11¢ Blue mussels can become toxic in half an hour. The FDA limit is 80  g

25 9/16/85 7/30/90 8/20/97 9/28/008/08/03 8/04/05 80 ug BLUE MUSSEL PSP Seldovia Bay

26 MOVEMENT OF THE TOXIN Algae Viscera and Gills Muscle Gonad

27 WHERE AND HOW MUCH? LocationDateAdductorVisceraGillsGonadsMantel AkhiokJune352, Izhut Bay July584, , Swikshak Sept.<322, Toxin Distribution in Weathervane Scallop

28 ALTERNATIVE TESTING? The Jellet Biotek Altert Kit TM Pluses   Rapid (one hour)   Accurate when test is negative   No toxic chemicals   Easy to use   Inexpensive – –processing kit for 40 samples $120 and $20/test Minuses   Representative sampling   May be too sensitive (measure toxins)   Not FDA approved yet   Don’t know how it will be accepted

29 PREDOMINANT MYTHS  Only red tides are toxic  This beach has never been toxic  Lip test  Toxic months are only those where there is no “r”  Feed the cat  Cook the shellfish  Only red tides are toxic  This beach has never been toxic  Lip test  Toxic months are only those where there is no “r”  Feed the cat  Cook the shellfish

30 FOR MORE INFORMATION   Marine Advisory Program – –http://www.uaf.edu/MAP/anch/raypubs.html – – me at:   Web Pages – –http://www.redtide.whoi.edu/hab/ – –http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/ – –http://www.wsg.washington.edu/outreach/mas/ aquaculture/algalfacts.html   Marine Advisory Program – –http://www.uaf.edu/MAP/anch/raypubs.html – – me at:   Web Pages – –http://www.redtide.whoi.edu/hab/ – –http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/ – –http://www.wsg.washington.edu/outreach/mas/ aquaculture/algalfacts.html


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