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Phytoplankton are the plant-like organisms of the sea that carry out photosynthesis and float in the upper areas of the worlds oceans.
Most of the ocean is too deep for plants to attach to the bottom like this Giant Kelp off the coast of California.
Therefore, most of the photosynthesis is carried out by microscopic single celled organisms or chains of single cells.
These organisms often have long projections to increase their surface area or oils to keep them in the photic zone.
Diatoms are dominant members of the phytoplankton that can be caught in a net.
They are especially common in temperate, coastal and polar regions.
They have sculptured shells, or frustules, made of silica. Diatoms can come in a variety of shapes.
More Diatom Shapes
Life Cycle of a Diatom
Fish Killer Some diatoms, like this one can kill fish when found in large numbers
The glasslike projections cause mucus to build up in the fishs gill which can lead to the fish's death.
Dinoflagellates are found throughout the worlds oceans, but tend to prefer warmer areas. Given nutrients, dinoflagellates can bloom or explosively grow to huge numbers sometimes causing RED TIDES
Florida red tide organism: Gymnodinium breve Dinoflagellates: red tides
Around 60 species of Dinoflagellates are known to cause red tides. A few species produce poisons that are among the most powerful natural toxins known.
During a red tide, dinoflagellates may poison the waters, turning the surface into a sea of dead fish. Red tides can also threaten human health.
Mussels, clams and other bivalves store the toxins as they filter feed. People who eat the shellfish can get Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning.
Victims suffer numbness and tingling, loss of balance, slurred speech, and in extreme cases, paralysis and death!
Symbiotic Dinoflagellates Some dinoflagellates like Zooxanthellae, are symbiotic with corals or jellyfish.
Coccolithophorids are common members of the nanoplankton. Most are too small to be taken in a regular plankton net.
Though found in coastal waters, they do best in open oceans where they often far outnumber all other types of phytoplankton.
These single celled organisms are covered by plates made of calcium carbonate.
Because of there small size, very little is known about silicoflagellates except that they can be very important to the primary production in the worlds oceans.
Plankton The Drifters. Two kinds of plankton Phytoplankton (Producers) Photosynthesis (Autotrophs) 1/2 of world’s primary production and oxygen.
Plankton. Phytoplankton Can’t move against currents (float or weakly move) >40% of global primary productivity.
Diversity of Life- Eukaryotic Microbes. Diversity of Life Kingdom.
Phytoplankton Microscopic plants that drift in the upper waters of the oceans Use sunlight to produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis:
A Broadly Applied Name. Algae are the ocean counterparts of plants, accounting for as much as 90% of the Earth’s primary productivity and oxygen production.
Plankton, Algae, and Plants. Plankton Plankton: the mass of mostly microscopic organisms that float or drift freely in the waters of aquatic (freshwater.
contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis commonly called algae four phyla: euglenophytes, chrysophytes, diatoms, dinoflagellates accessory.
Producers turn the sun’s energy into usable energy for consumers.
Marine Biology Plankton. General Info: Plankton comes from the Greek word “planktos” which means drifter. Plankton comes from the Greek word “planktos”
Aquatic Ecosystems Lesson 4.4 M. ParkerBodega Head, Sonoma Coast.
A complex ecosystem. Producers turn the sun’s energy into usable energy for consumers.
Biological Productivity GAUTAM SANKA. Phaeophyta (Brown Algae) Largest members of the marine plant community that are attached to the bottom in the littoral.
Epipelagic/Photic zone Surface to 200 m Surface to 200 m Warmest and best light for photosynthesis Warmest and best light for photosynthesis Divided into.
*Refer to Chapter 5 in your Textbook. Marine Science: 3/28/16 Bellringer: Which type of marine bacteria am I? 1. Lives in hydrothermal vents 2. Lives.
Phytoplankton and Zooplankton. Phytoplankton The most important organisms on the planet are……………
Oceanic Plankton Lifestyles of the Microscopic & Overlooked.
Lifestyles of Marine Organisms Essay – Jot Notes.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 13 Biological Productivity.
Protists Dinoflagellates (Red tide, Zooxanthellae, Pfisteria) Diatoms Cocolithophores Radiolarians Foraminiferans Algal blooms.
Phytoplankton Dr. Dawn A. Osborn Environmental Processes in Oceans and Lakes.
Marine Biome and Biodiversity. Biome: A distinct ecological community of plants and animals living together in a particular climate.
Marine life is classified into three groups: Plankton, Nekton, and Benthos Plankton NektonPlankton Benthos.
Chapter 4 The Energy of Life. Section 2 Objectives – page 46 How Matter and Energy Enter Living Systems Part 1.
Conditions away from shore ● Closest to the shore is the Continental shelf ● Sunlight reaches almost to the bottom of the Continental shelf ● Nutrients.
Bio Productivity and energy transfer.. Bio Productivity and energy transfer Ocean life is dependent on producers – Most producers utilize energy from.
MARINE BIOMES MODIFIED BY: MS. SHANNON. BIOMES A biome is a major, geographically extensive ecosystem, structurally characterized by its dominant life.
Lesson Overview Lesson Overview The Ecology of Protists Lesson Overview 21.3 The Ecology of Protists.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.. Primary Productivity Rate at which energy is stored in organic matter –Photosynthesis uses solar radiation. –Chemosynthesis.
Chapter 5 The Microbial World. Microbial World Primary producers Very important in the ocean’s ecosystems!
All about Plankton. Phytoplankton Microscopic plants that drift in the upper waters of the oceans Use sunlight to produce their own food through the process.
Red Tide Questions. 1. What technology do scientists use to observe Red Tide on a large scale? A. satellite cameras B. remotely controlled vehicles on.
Brown Algae Phaeophytes. Brown Algae Nearly all multicellular marine organisms. Commonly referred to as seaweeds. They have cell walls made of cellulose.
Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Plankton at the Base of the Pyramid.
Photic Pelagic Waters I. Location A. From surface to 200m (average) B. Where photosynthesis takes place.
Chapter 13 Biological Productivity and Energy Transfer Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition.
Aquatic Biomes. The limiting factors in aquatic biomes are: –Amount of salt (salinity) –Amount of dissolved oxygen –Sunlight.
Plankton (This is not what real plankton looks like. )
Slide 1 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 4-4 Aquatic Ecosystems.
End Show Slide 1 of 39 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall biology.
DO NOW: What do you think is the most important organism in the oceanic food web?
Plant-like Protists Chapter 8 (Part 2). Plantlike Protists – Algae Some protists are considered plant like because they undergo… photosynthesis Algae.
Primary Producers Plants and Plant-like Organisms.
Unicellular Algae: The Diatoms Diatoms are unicellular, although many species aggregate to form chains Diatom cells are enclosed by cell walls made of.
Marine Zones iNOB. Four Zones of a Marine Ecosystem 1.Intertidal 2. Neritic 3. Oceanic 4. Benthic.
The Marine Biome Cycle carbon dioxide and oxygen on Earth Modifies temperatures changes Most important: provides stability to the web of life on Earth.
Plankton. General term to describe organisms with limited mobility who rely on water currents to get around.
Main Idea #1: Ocean life changes as you move from the shoreline out to open ocean Main Idea #2: Ocean life changes as you move from the surface to the.
Plankton. Marine life 3 categories: 1.Benthos: bottom dwellers; sponges, crabs 2.Nekton: strong swimmers- whales, fish, squid 3.Plankton: animal/plants.
Unicellular Marine Organisms and Algae. Archaebacteria and Bacteria Archaebacteria From the Greek archaio meaning OLD Extremophiles (live in environments.
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