Presentation on theme: "The Roaring Twenties A Review in Pictures. 24-1 A Time of Turmoil Fear of Radicalism 1917: Russian Revolution- Bolsheviks urge workers around world to."— Presentation transcript:
The Roaring Twenties A Review in Pictures
24-1 A Time of Turmoil Fear of Radicalism 1917: Russian Revolution- Bolsheviks urge workers around world to overthrow capitalism Anarchists behind series of bombings ~ Leads to Red Scare: Gov’t. goes after Communists and others w/ radical views -Palmer Raids: Atty. Gen. Palmer and J. Edgar Hoover arrest, deport suspects ~ Sacco and Vanzetti (Italian immigrants) arrested and executed
Sacco and Vanzetti
Workers demand wage increases to keep up w/ rising prices; leads to strikes in 1919 (ex- Boston Police force- largest strike, Nat. Guard called in, strike collapses, all fired). Public supports firing of striking steelworkers ~ Union membership drops as a result of association b/w unions and radicalism
Who does the government support?
Racial strife 1919: Over 70 Afr. Americans lynched in South Race riot in Chicago left almost 40 dead ~ Many Afr. Amer. Turn to Marcus Garvey, who supported a “back-to-Africa” movement (UNIA) “Great Migration” to Northern cities for jobs
After the War: A Return to Normalcy Warren G. Harding : Rep.( ). Elected to the Presidency in the 1920s, Harding urged a "return to normalcy." The policies of his administration were generally conservative, especially regarding taxes, tariffs, immigration restriction, labor rights, and business regulation. Harding's administration was marked by corruption and scandal, although most of the scandals did not become public knowledge until after he died of a stroke in office in August 1923.
Warren G. Harding
24-2 Desire for Normalcy Harding and Coolidge 1920: 1 st election for women vote Harding wins on “Return to Normalcy” platform ~“Less government in business and more business in government” ~Presidency filled with scandal (Ohio Gang) -Teapot Dome Scandal: Sec’t of Interior Albert Fall took bribes + made illegal deals Harding dies, V.P. Calvin Coolidge takes over.
Teapot Dome Scandal Teapot Dome, WY: Site of federal oil reserves; leased without competitive bids
Coolidge Takes Over Coolidge is “A friend to business” ~Laissez-faire policy- business prospered isolationist ~Kellogg-Briand Pact: nations pledge not to make war except in self- defense ~negotiated w/Latin America (Mexico) instead of sending troops
“Silent Cal” Calvin Coolidge ( ). Coolidge did little as Warren G. Harding's vice president ( ), but when he assumed the presidency after Harding's death, he acted quickly to repair the damage of the Harding administrations scandals and to secure the 1924 presidential nomination.
24-3 A Booming Economy Growth in the 1920s Post WWI recession lasts for 2 yrs; economic growth after Gross National Product (GNP) increases from $70 billion to $100 billion by 1929 ~Technology (esp. electricity), new management techniques, and the assembly line increase productivity. Result: reduced production costs and lower prices
Electric appliances, new advertisements, and installment buying lead to consumer culture Due to increase in jobs, people have more money to spend
The Automobile Age Detroit, MI becomes automobile manufacturing center of world (Henry Ford, Model-T). Assembly line speeds production: autos available to larger group of Americans Assembly line ~Effect of automobile: other businesses grow, travel increases, suburbs expand
What industries were affected negatively? Farmers do not share in prosperity; after war, had to compete with Europe Trucks -business from railroads; electricity replaces coal (hurts mining industry)
Technology Changes Life Avg. income rises- more $ to spend- Assembly line (Ford: model-T) speeds production: autos available to larger group of Americans Installment buying (credit) New machines- washing machine, fans, toasters, electric refrigerator, etc
Henry Ford’s Model T: an affordable $335 due to the assembly line
TO SUM IT UP:Technology Changes Life Avg. income rises- more $ to spend- consumer economy Assembly line (Ford: model-T) speeds production: autos available to larger group of Americans Installment buying (credit) New machines- washing machine, fans, toasters, electric refrigerator, etc
Installment buying Makes larger items affordable Pay a small amount of money each month
24-4 The Roaring Twenties Social and Cultural Change 1927: First solo flight across Atlantic by Charles Lindburgh sets tone for change- First trans-Atlantic flight (Lindbergh, Earhart) signals beginning of air age.
1927-First trans-Atlantic flight signals beginning of Air Age
New freedoms for women ~19 th Amendment (1920)- vote and hold office WHAT IS AN EFFECT OF THIS??????? ~work outside home ~Flapper- new liberated woman
Youth in the 20’s
ChangesChanges in Society Youth in the 20s ~fads: flag-pole sitting, Charleston, bobbed hair, flappers, zoot suitsflag-pole sittingCharleston bobbed hairflappers, zoot suits ~ led to generational conflicts
Entertainment: Motion Picture spreads cultural changesMotion Picture movies and radio lead to growth of advertisement advertisement sports and fads become the rage
The Jazz Age Harlem Renaissance instills interest in African American culture and pride Growth of black art, music, and cultural identity ~Jazz music (Armstrong) ~writers (Langston Hughes’ poetry,Langston Hughes’ poetry Zora Neale Hurston’s books) ~art
The Lost Generation Artists and writers who saw little hope for the future; resentment over “senseless” war Expatriates lived in Paris ~ Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis
Culture Clash 18 th Amendment (1919-prohibition) divides nation, leads to willingness to break law (repealed in 1933 w/21 st Amendment) ~speakeasies ~bootleggers
Nativism- re-emergence of KKK ~Congress passes Emergency Quota Act
Scopes Trial: 1925 TN- illegal to teach evolution. Science vs. Religion ~W.J. Bryan: prosecution, C. Darrow: defense ~ TN Supreme Court overturned Scope’s conviction
Election of 1928 ~Herbert Hoover: Republican candidate, Protestant, “dry” ~Alfred E. Smith: Democrat, Roman Catholic, “wet” -Became race of traditional values vs. modern values HOOVER WINS
Change and Conflict Conflict in Society Ideas and values ~young and old ~native-born and immigrants ~blacks and whites- resurgence of the KKK ~science and religion- Scopes Trial challenges teaching of evolution