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Chapter 17: Page 471 The Renaissance. The Growth of Italian City-States.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17: Page 471 The Renaissance. The Growth of Italian City-States."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17: Page 471 The Renaissance

2 The Growth of Italian City-States

3 Why were Italian city- states so rich and powerful?

4 Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth Northern Italy had a wealthy merchant class It’s classical heritage of Greece and Rome Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth Northern Italy had a wealthy merchant class It’s classical heritage of Greece and Rome

5 How did Florence become the most influential city-state?

6 Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural Because of the plague, many of the city’s survivors could demand higher wages Because Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural Because of the plague, many of the city’s survivors could demand higher wages Because Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics

7 What was the Renaissance and why did it begin in Italy?

8 Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning Italian merchants displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artists Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) was a generous patron of the arts Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning Italian merchants displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artists Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) was a generous patron of the arts

9 The Spirit of the Renaissance

10 Why People Like Me Became Interested in Ancient Culture…

11 The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around themThe Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around them Church leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artistsChurch leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists The Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around themThe Crusades made Europeans eager to learn about the world around them Church leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artistsChurch leaders became patrons of the arts by financially supporting artists

12 A Fascination with Classical Cultures

13 Scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman cultureScholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman culture Artists used ancient art as modelsArtists used ancient art as models Brunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruinsBrunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruins Scholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman cultureScholars became interested in ancient Greek and Roman culture Artists used ancient art as modelsArtists used ancient art as models Brunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruinsBrunelleschi designed buildings after studying Roman ruins

14 Filippo Brunelleschi Commissioned to build the cathedral dome in Florence (Il Duomo) –Used unique architectural concepts. He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome Filippo Brunelleschi Commissioned to build the cathedral dome in Florence (Il Duomo) –Used unique architectural concepts. He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome

15 Brunelleschi’s Dome

16 Dome Comparisons Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)

17 A New Type of Scholar Called a Humanist

18 Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs 1.) seeking fulfillment in daily life 2.) all people have dignity and worth 3.) the ideal person—one who can do almost anything (the Renaissance Man) Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs 1.) seeking fulfillment in daily life 2.) all people have dignity and worth 3.) the ideal person—one who can do almost anything (the Renaissance Man)

19 Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, and mathematics In the Middle Ages, religious people proved their piety by living a plain life—humanists enjoyed life without offending God Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, and mathematics In the Middle Ages, religious people proved their piety by living a plain life—humanists enjoyed life without offending God

20 Machiavelli—wrote The Prince The Prince was a book about Italian government Machiavelli supported the idea of absolute power In order to keep power, a ruler must do some evil Machiavelli—wrote The Prince The Prince was a book about Italian government Machiavelli supported the idea of absolute power In order to keep power, a ruler must do some evil

21 Petrarch Father of Renaissance humanism Poet sonnets Father of Renaissance humanism Poet sonnets

22 A Belief in Human Potential

23 Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlifeEmphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife Renaissance thinkers strove to master almost every artRenaissance thinkers strove to master almost every art Later ages called such people “Renaissance men”Later ages called such people “Renaissance men” Emphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlifeEmphasized human achievement on earth, rather than the afterlife Renaissance thinkers strove to master almost every artRenaissance thinkers strove to master almost every art Later ages called such people “Renaissance men”Later ages called such people “Renaissance men”

24 Renaissance Artists

25 Individuals became the center of attention during the Renaissance as the belief in human potential & ability began to emerge from Medieval ways of thinking

26 Ideal Man—was well educated in the Classics; should be charming, witty, & smart; can dance, write poetry, & play music; should be physically fit (called a “Renaissance Man”)

27 Ideal Woman—study Classics; write, dance, paint, make music well; but should not seek fame or political power (Renaissance women were far better educated but had fewer rights than Medieval women)

28 Giovanni Giotto

29 Giotto developed a new artistic style for creating frescos (paint on wet plaster walls): –Painted human figures that appeared lifelike –Painted people with emotion –Painted people in frescos interacting with each other Giotto developed a new artistic style for creating frescos (paint on wet plaster walls): –Painted human figures that appeared lifelike –Painted people with emotion –Painted people in frescos interacting with each other

30 Giotto’s “ Lamentation over Christ”

31 Donato Donatello

32 Donatello was the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance Medieval sculptors only carved the front of a statue, but Donatello wanted sculptures to be viewed from all sides like Greek & Roman statues Donatello was the greatest sculptor of the Renaissance Medieval sculptors only carved the front of a statue, but Donatello wanted sculptures to be viewed from all sides like Greek & Roman statues

33 Donatello’s “David” became the first large, free-standing human sculpture

34 Tommaso Masaccio

35 Masaccio added to Giotto’s innovative style by using perspective: –Shows objects in the foreground as larger than objects in the background which gives the illusion of depth Masaccio added to Giotto’s innovative style by using perspective: –Shows objects in the foreground as larger than objects in the background which gives the illusion of depth

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37 Masaccio’s Christ and the Tribute

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39 Acrostic Task: Create an acrostic with the letters RENAISSANCE. Illustrate your acrostic. The first three letters might look like this: R ebirth of ancient ideas and learning E mphasis was now on earthly achievements N urtured by leaders of Italian city-states Task: Create an acrostic with the letters RENAISSANCE. Illustrate your acrostic. The first three letters might look like this: R ebirth of ancient ideas and learning E mphasis was now on earthly achievements N urtured by leaders of Italian city-states

40 Michelangelo

41 Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpiecesMichelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beautyHis greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpiecesMichelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpieces His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beautyHis greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty

42 Michelangelo’s “Pieta” depicts the Virgin Mary cradling the limp body of the crucified Jesus

43 Michelangelo’s statue of “David” expresses the Renaissance belief in human dignity and greatness

44 His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows Biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty

45 Michelangelo painted more than 300 massive human figures onto the 5,800 square- foot ceiling while laying on his back The ceiling contains illustrations from the creation of Adam to the story of Noah Michelangelo painted more than 300 massive human figures onto the 5,800 square- foot ceiling while laying on his back The ceiling contains illustrations from the creation of Adam to the story of Noah

46 The Creation of the Heavens

47 The Sistine Chapel Details Creation of Man

48 Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment” This painting features Christ judging souls as the rise and fall from each side of the painting Michelangelo returned to the chapel to begin painting the altarpiece “The Last Judgment” This painting features Christ judging souls as the rise and fall from each side of the painting

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51 Bartholomew's flayed skin

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53 Raphael

54 Raphael “Perfected” Renaissance painting He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people “School of Athens” is his greatest work Raphael “Perfected” Renaissance painting He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people “School of Athens” is his greatest work

55 All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included in this painting  all of the great personalities of the classical period A great variety of poses Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel

56 Raphael Plato and Aristotle Socrates

57 Michelangelo Alexander the Great

58 Pythagoras

59 Zoroaster Ptolemy Euclid

60 Perspective!Perspective! Betrothal of the Virgin Raphael

61 Leonardo da Vinci

62 A true “Renaissance Man” Leonardo was an inventor, painter, sculptor, & scientist

63 Leonardo, the Artist

64 From his Notebooks of over 5000 pages)

65 His “Last Supper” shows Jesus’ last meeting with the 12 apostles before the crucifixion The facial expressions, detail, and emotion had made it a masterpiece

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67 The Last Supper – da Vinci, & Geometry

68 horizontal vertical The Last Supper and Perspective

69 A Da Vinci “Code” St. John or Mary Magdalene?

70 Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan, Italy

71 da Vinci’s Mona Lisa is great for its emotion and depth

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74 Mona Lisa has no visible facial hair at all - including eyebrows and eyelashes

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76 A Picasso Mona

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78 On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closedOn August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913 On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closedOn August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913After keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913

79 In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbow The painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it The result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbow The painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass

80 Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook

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82 Leonardo, the Engineer:

83 Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw He intended to power it with a wound-up spring Leonardo sketched several designs for flying machines including this one with a rotating screw He intended to power it with a wound-up spring

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85 Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank Four soldiers sitting inside could turn cranks to move the wheels on this tank” Leonardo’s many military inventions included this design for an armored tank Four soldiers sitting inside could turn cranks to move the wheels on this tank”

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87 da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow It's difficult to know whether it would have worked, or whether it would have been superior to cannons of the same period da Vinci also invented a gigantic crossbow It's difficult to know whether it would have worked, or whether it would have been superior to cannons of the same period

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89 Vitruvian Man

90 The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one- fifth of a man's height The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's height The distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one- fifth of a man's height

91 The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars from other areas visited Italian city-states & took the new ideas they saw back

92 Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas Renaissance ideas spread to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), England, France, Belgium, Netherlands Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas Renaissance ideas spread to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), England, France, Belgium, Netherlands

93 Renaissance in Germany was very religious—Christian humanists criticized the church & society (will lead to Protestant Reformation )

94 poked fun at greedy merchants and pompous priests in his writings Christian humanist who wrote “The Praise of Folly” poked fun at greedy merchants and pompous priests in his writings Christian humanist who wrote “The Praise of Folly” ERASMUS

95 Renaissance in England focused on social issues—Thomas More criticized society through Utopia William Shakespeare— playwright who wrote plays based on ideas from classics & universal human qualities Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy Renaissance in England focused on social issues—Thomas More criticized society through Utopia William Shakespeare— playwright who wrote plays based on ideas from classics & universal human qualities Dante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy

96 The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery The Renaissance spirit played an important role in helping to launch the Age of Exploration The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery The Renaissance spirit played an important role in helping to launch the Age of Exploration


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