3 Why were Italian city-states so rich and powerful?
4 Overseas trade, spurred by the Crusades, led to their growth Northern Italy had a wealthy merchant classIt’s classical heritage of Greece and Rome
5 How did Florence become the most influential city-state?
6 Florence was mostly urban while the rest of Europe was rural Because of the plague, many of the city’s survivors could demand higher wagesBecause Florence was small, many of its citizens could be involved in politics
7 What was the Renaissance and why did it begin in Italy?
8 Renaissance means “re-birth” which refers to revival in arts and learning Italian merchants displayed their wealth by giving financial support to artistsLorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) was a generous patron of the arts
18 Humanists adopted many Roman and Greek beliefs 1.) seeking fulfillment in daily life2.) all people have dignity and worth3.) the ideal person—one who can do almost anything (the Renaissance Man)
19 Humanists learned many subjects, such as Latin, Greek history, and mathematics In the Middle Ages, religious people proved their piety by living a plain life—humanists enjoyed life without offending God
20 Machiavelli—wrote The Prince The Prince was a book about Italian governmentMachiavelli supported the idea of absolute powerIn order to keep power, a ruler must do some evil
21 PetrarchFather of Renaissance humanismPoetsonnets
29 Giotto developed a new artistic style for creating frescos (paint on wet plaster walls): Painted human figures that appeared lifelikePainted people with emotionPainted people in frescos interacting with each other
30 Giotto’s “ Lamentation over Christ” The Mourning of Christ
39 Rebirth of ancient ideas and learning AcrosticTask: Create an acrostic with the letters RENAISSANCE. Illustrate your acrostic. The first three letters might look like this:Rebirth of ancient ideas and learningEmphasis was now on earthly achievementsNurtured by leaders of Italian city-states
41 Michelangelo was a great painter & sculptor; his “Pieta” & “David” sculptures are perceived as masterpiecesHis greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty
42 Michelangelo’s “Pieta” depicts the Virgin Mary cradling the limp body of the crucified Jesus
43 Michelangelo’s statue of “David” expresses the Renaissance belief in human dignity and greatness
44 His greatest work is the 130 ft x 44 ft ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; which shows Biblical images of amazing detail, power, & beauty
45 Michelangelo painted more than 300 massive human figures onto the 5,800 square-foot ceiling while laying on his backThe ceiling contains illustrations from the creation of Adam to the story of Noah
54 Raphael “Perfected” Renaissance painting He became the favorite painter of the Pope because of his amazing detailed paintings showing Greeks & Romans along with Renaissance people“School of Athens” is his greatest work
55 All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included in this painting all of the great personalities of the classical periodA great variety of posesRaphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel
78 On August 12, 1911, a Louvre employee stole it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closedAfter keeping the painting in his apartment for two years, the man grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to an art dealer; it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913
79 In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when someone doused it with acid On December 30 of that same year, another person damaged the painting by throwing a rock at itThe result was a speck of pigment near Mona Lisa's left elbowThe painting is now covered with bulletproof security glass
80 Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology): Pages from his Notebook
90 The length of a man's outspread arms is equal to his height The maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of a man's heightThe distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is one-fifth of a man's height
91 The Renaissance spread from Italy as scholars from other areas visited Italian city-states & took the new ideas they saw back
92 Kings bought Renaissance art, helping to spread new ideas Renaissance ideas spread to the Holy Roman Empire (Germany), England, France, Belgium, Netherlands
93 Renaissance in Germany was very religious—Christian humanists criticized the church & society (will lead to Protestant Reformation)
94 ERASMUSpoked fun at greedy merchants and pompous priests in his writingsChristian humanist who wrote “The Praise of Folly”
95 Renaissance in England focused on social issues—Thomas More criticized society through Utopia William Shakespeare— playwright who wrote plays based on ideas from classics & universal human qualitiesDante Alighieri – wrote “The Divine Comedy
96 The Renaissance encouraged a new spirit of adventure and discovery The Renaissance spirit played an important role in helping to launch the Age of Exploration
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