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Physiology and Ecology Review Nervous System Q1: Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic.

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Presentation on theme: "Physiology and Ecology Review Nervous System Q1: Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Physiology and Ecology Review

3 Nervous System

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5 Q1: Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap? (A)Neural impulses involve the flow of K+ and Na+ across the gap. (B)Neural impulses travel across the gap as electrical currents. (C)Neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap. (D)Neural impulses travel across the gap in both directions. (E)The calcium within the axons and dendrites of nerves adjacent to a synapse acts as the neurotransmitter.

6 Which of the following offers the best description of neural transmission across a mammalian synaptic gap? (A)Neural impulses involve the flow of K+ and Na+ across the gap. (B)Neural impulses travel across the gap as electrical currents. (C)Neural impulses cause the release of chemicals that diffuse across the gap. (D)Neural impulses travel across the gap in both directions. (E)The calcium within the axons and dendrites of nerves adjacent to a synapse acts as the neurotransmitter.

7 Q2: Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in an action potential after stimulation of a neuron? A K+ moves in; Na+ moves out B Na+ moves in; K+ moves out C Na+ moves in; Ca++ moves out D Na+ moves in; Cl- moves out E K+ moves in; organic anions move out

8 Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in an action potential after stimulation of a neuron? A K+ moves in; Na+ moves out B Na+ moves in; K+ moves out C Na+ moves in; Ca++ moves out D Na+ moves in; Cl- moves out E K+ moves in; organic anions move out

9 Q3: All of the following statements about neurotransmitters are generally true EXCEPT: A They may cause depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane B They are actively transported across the synaptic cleft C They are released from membrane-bound packets called vesicles D They may be enzymatically degraded at the postsynaptic membrane E They bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

10 All of the following statements about neurotransmitters are generally true EXCEPT: A They may cause depolarization or hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane B They are actively transported across the synaptic cleft C They are released from membrane-bound packets called vesicles D They may be enzymatically degraded at the postsynaptic membrane E They bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic membrane.

11 Immune System

12 Features of Exchange Surfaces? 1.Large surface area, often folded 2.Thin barrier to reduce diffusion distance 3.Fresh supply of required molecules on one side to keep concentration high -Removal of required molecules on other side to keep concentration low -(maintains concentration gradient)

13 FISHES AMPHIBIANSREPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS)MAMMALS AND BIRDS Systemic capillaries Lung capillaries Lung and skin capillariesGill capillaries Right Left RightLeft Right Left Systemic circuit Pulmocutaneous circuit Pulmonary circuit Systemic circulation Vein Atrium (A) Heart: ventricle (V) Artery Gill circulation A V V VVV A A A AA Left Systemic aorta Right systemic aorta Figure 42.4 Vertebrate circulatory systems

14 Q4:The function of which of the following structures is NOT directly related to diffusion or active transport across its membrane? (A)Aorta (B)Small intestine (C)Nephron tubule (D)Capillary (E)Alveolus

15 The function of which of the following structures is NOT directly related to diffusion or active transport across its membrane? A Aorta B Small intestine C Nepheron tubule D Capillary E Alveolus

16 Q5: In mammals, a decrease in body temperature results in which of the following responses? A Release of thyroxine decreases the rate of metabolism B Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin constrict C Increased secretion of epinephrine restricts the amount of sugar released into the circulatory system D The adrenal glands increase the release of acetylcholine into the circulatory system E Blood vessels in deep muscles constrict so that heat is conserved

17 In mammals, a decrease in body temperature results in which of the following responses? A Release of thyroxine decreases the rate of metabolism B Blood vessels close to the surface of the skin constrict C Increased secretion of epinephrine restricts the amount of sugar released into the circulatory system D The adrenal glands increase the release of acetylcholine into the circulatory system E Blood vessels in deep muscles constrict so that heat is conserved

18 Digestive

19 Excretory System and Nephron

20 Maintaining homeostasis high low hormone 1 lowers body condition hormone 2 gland specific body condition raises body condition gland Negative Feedback Model

21 Homeostasis of Blood Glucose

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23 Positive Feedback AMPLIFICATION

24 Birth positive feedback

25 Positive Feedback in Plants Ripening Fruit—hormone ethylene One of the coolest things about ethylene is that it is released in a positive feedback loop: a little bit of ethylene causes more to be released, which causes even more to be released, and so on. A benefit of this fact is that you can take an unripe fruit (a pear, plum, or peach, for example) and put it in a paper bag with riper fruit (bananas work well for this) and ethylene will accumulate, making the unripe fruit soft and sweet.

26 Q6: Which of the following hormones is directly responsible for positive feedback loop during labor? A Melatonin B Oxytocin C Progesterone D Prolactin E FSH

27 Which of the following hormones is directly responsible for the maintenance of the uterine lining during pregnancy in mammals? A Melatonin B Oxytocin C Progesterone D Prolactin E FSH

28 Ecology

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31 Level Population ,782 A. Primary consumers B. Secondary consumer C. Tertiary consumers D. Decomposers E. Producers Question 7: In a simple ecosystem, a census of the populations in four successive trophic levels was taken as shown above. If level 1 is composed of photosynthetic autotrophs, then the trophic level with 780 individuals will most likely represent:

32 Level Population ,782 A. Primary consumers B. Secondary consumer C. Tertiary consumers D. Decomposers E. Producers In a simple ecosystem, a census of the populations in four successive trophic levels was taken as shown above. If level 1 is composed of photosynthetic autotrophs, then the trophic level with 780 individuals will most likely represent:

33 Predator-Prey Relationship

34 R vs. K survivorship curves

35 Question 8: In the process of succession, which of the following is true of K-selected plant species? A. They keep their carrying capacity at a minimum level. B. They usually reproduce early in life. C. They are usually found in climax stages of succession. D. There are the dominant species in early stages of succession. E. They have a short lifespan.

36 In the process of succession, which of the following is true of K-selected plant species? A. They keep their carrying capacity at a minimum level. B. They usually reproduce early in life. C. They are usually found in climax stages of succession. D. The are the dominant species in early stages of succession. E. They have a short lifespan.

37 Fixed Action Patterns A fixed action pattern (FAP) – Is a sequence of unlearned, innate behaviors that is unchangeable – Once initiated, is usually carried to completion A FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus – Known as a sign stimulus Figure 51.3a (a) A male three-spined stickleback fish shows its red underside.

38 When presented with unrealistic models – As long as some red is present, the attack behavior occurs Figure 51.3b The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. The other models, with red undersides, produce strong responses. (b) The realistic model at the top, without a red underside, produces no aggressive response in a male three-spined stickleback fish. The other models, with red undersides, produce strong responses.

39 Imprinting Imprinting is a type of behavior – That includes both learning and innate components and is generally irreversible Imprinting is distinguished from other types of learning by a sensitive period A limited phase in an animal’s development that is the only time when certain behaviors can be learned An example of imprinting is young geese Following their mother

40 Operant conditioning is a form of psychological learning where an individual modifies the occurrence and form of its own behavior due to the association of the behavior with a stimulus.psychological learningbehaviorassociationstimulus Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior classical conditioningmodification of "voluntary behavior"

41 Question 9: If young male zebra finches are raised by foster parents of another species, the Bengalese finch, they will court female Bengalese finch instead of females of their own species. This behavior results from which of the following? A. Imprinting B. Habituation C. Conditioning D. Reinforcement E. Pheromones

42 Question 9: If young male zebra finches are raised by foster parents of another species, the Bengalese finch, they will court female Bengalese finch instead of females of their own species. This behavior results from which of the following? A. Imprinting B. Habituation C. Conditioning D. Reinforcement E. Pheromones

43 Question 10: All of the following statements concerning characteristics of predator-prey relationships are correct EXCEPT: A. A rise in the population of prey is often followed by a rise in the population of predators. B. A rise in the population of predators is followed by a decrease in the population of prey. C. Camouflage is an adaptation that protects prey. D. The production of large number of offspring within very short periods of time ensures the survival of some prey populations E. The population of predators most often eliminates the population of prey.

44 All of the following statements concerning characteristics of predator- prey relationships are correct EXCEPT: A. A rise in the population of prey is often followed by a rise in the population of predators. B. A rise in the population of predators is followed by a decrease in the population of prey. C. Camouflage is an adaptation that protects prey. D. The production of large number of offspring within very short periods of time ensures the survival of some prey populations E. The population of predators most often eliminates the population of prey.


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