6 CarnivoresNo predatorsLimited only by foodHerbivoresProducers
7 No predators Limited only by food Limited by predation Carnivores HerbivoresProducers
8 No predators Limited only by food Limited by predation Carnivores HerbivoresProducers
9 Limited by competition and resources CarnivoresNo predatorsLimited only by foodLimited by predationLimited by competition and resourcesHerbivoresProducers
10 Trophic cascade – influence of producers or consumers on species that are two or more trophic levels awayTop-down Control – influence of predators on the relative abundance of lower trophic levelsBottom-up Control – influence of producers on the relative abundance of higher trophic levels
11 Conditions for Trophic Cascades 1. Consumers can control biomass of prey
12 Conditions for Trophic Cascades If Cpredator > Pprey Prey controlled by predator If Cpredator < Pprey Prey not be controlled by predator P = production C = consumptionBioenergetic budget G=growth (~ production) C=consumption R=respiration F=feces E=excreta
13 Conditions for Trophic Cascades 2. Simple and well-known food web
14 Conditions for Trophic Cascades 3. Size-selective predationalewifeFrom Brooks and Dodson 1965
15 What is biodiversity?Biodiversity is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.
16 Why is it important?Biodiversity affects key ecosystem processes in terrestrial ecosystems such as biomass production, nutrient and water cycling, and soil formation and retention—all of which govern and ensure supporting services
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