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Marine Birds Class Aves.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Birds Class Aves."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Birds Class Aves

2 Marine Bird Characteristics
What makes a seabird different from a terrestrial bird? Seabirds are those birds which spend a significant part of their lives at sea Differ widely in flying skills and feeding mechanisms Most are predators that feed at sea Nest on land

3 Marine Bird Characteristics
Marine birds have many advantages that allow them to live in a wide variety of environments Endotherms with a four-chambered heart Internal fertilization and an amniotic egg that is more resistant to water loss Waterproof feathers and wings Hollow bones which aid in flight A. Characteristics of Birds What characteristics are shared by organisms in class Aves? 1. Birds and the ocean go hand-in-hand. Every coastal marine environment has bird species that have found a niche there. 2. Many scientists consider birds indicators of a marine ecosystem’s richness and health. a. The more types and quantities of birds, the greater the richness and health. 3. Birds are vertebrates in class Aves, a huge group consisting of about 10,000 species. 4. Members of this class share several characteristics, including feathers, which are unique to this class. 5. Birds are also classified based on having forelimbs that are wings, a fourchambered heart, and laying internally fertilized eggs.

4 Marine Bird Characteristics
Endotherms with a 4-chambered heart Warm-blooded This allows them to live in a wide variety of environments Higher metabolism supplies the large amounts of energy needed for active flight Albatross Blue-footed Booby

5 Marine Bird Characteristics
Waterproof feathers No other organism has feathers Feathers are lightweight and help insulate the animal’s body, allowing it to maintain a higher temperature than its surroundings Waterproofing is provided by oil from a gland above the base of the tail The birds rub the oil into their feathers with their beaks, known as preening

6 Marine Bird Characteristics
Wings with hollow bones Bird’s forelimbs have adapted into wings for flight Hollow bones allow birds to fly more easily

7 Marine Bird Characteristics
Marine birds have internal fertilization They lay amniotic eggs that are more resistant to water loss than their ancestors, the reptiles Every species of bird has a different mating and breeding ritual, but all birds nest on land The parent provides extensive care until the young is grown Great Egret

8 Special Adaptations Can you think of any adaptations that seabirds may have that aid them in the water? Salt glands to rid extra salt from the body Near their nose and can ‘sneeze’ the salt out Webbed feet for swimming and floating on the surface. Specialized beaks with no teeth to hunt for prey What adaptations to the marine environments do the various bird species exhibit? 9. Because of their role in the marine and other aquatic environments, many species of birds exhibit related adaptations. 10. Seabirds have webbed feet for swimming efficiently while floating on the surface. 11. Most species have bill adaptations suited to their marine prey. a. For instance, the pelican is well known for its pouched lower jaw that aids it in capturing fish. 12. The cormorant not only flies over the water, but in it, descending several meters in pursuit of its prey. 13. Some birds, like the albatross, have wings and flight characteristics adapted to long-duration flying over wide expanses of water.

9 Salt Glands Osmoregulation - “salt glands”
Located above their eyes that process excess salt The glands produce a salty solution that is excreted through the birds’ nostrils and down grooves of their beaks, where it drips off.

10 Feet Adaptations There are several lengths of legs and types of feet found on sea birds Birds that spend most of their time at sea have short, stocky legs and partially webbed feet Short legs work as oars and the webbed feet work as a paddle Birds that spend most of their time at the intertidal zone have long, thin legs and webbed feet for swimming

11 Beak Adaptations What do you think marine birds eat?
How do you think they obtain their food? Shape of the beak gives clues to the kind of food the bird eats Curved projections at the tips help predatory birds Different lengths and curvatures of bills determines which prey can be reached by probing in the sand. Pelicans, cormorants and frigate birds have a distensible pouch to capture fish

12 Beak Adaptations Pelicans
dive and scoop fish up in their pouched bills and drain the water before swallowing their catch Cormorants pursue fish under water, seizing their prey with their hooked beaks Flamingos filter small organisms out of the water Long billed, long legged birds wade in shallow water using their bills to probe in the mud or sand to pluck prey out Penguins dive to great depths get their meals Terns and gulls soar over the water and catch fish at the surface


14 Beak Description Activity
Shorebirds 1. This beak is extra long allowing the bird to probe for deep lying prey Godwits

15 Beak Description Activity
Shorebirds 2. This relatively short and stalky beak allows the bird to probe for shallow lying prey Terns

16 Beak Description Activity
Shorebirds 3. This beak is medium in length, allowing the bird to probe for medium depth prey 4. This beak has lamellae, which filters the water for small particles like bacteria and plankton Sandpiper Flamingo

17 Beak Description Activity
Murre Open Water Feeders 5. This straight, narrow beak is used for capturing prey that is swallowed whole. Cormorant

18 Beak Description Activity
Open Water Feeders 6. This short, heavy hooked beak is ideal for holding and tearing prey too large to be swallowed whole. This beak is best for shallow feeding because its shape and size interfere with fast underwater pursuit. Gull

19 Beak Description Activity
Open Water Feeders 7. This beak is heavy and streamlined, which makes it good for deep diving. The heavy structure allows the bird to feed on tougher, crunchier prey. Puffin

20 Beak Description Activity
Open Water Feeders 8. This beak has a longer lower mandible, which allows the bird to feed while flying. The beak ‘skims’ the surface of the water for prey. Skimmers Pelican

21 Importance to Marine Ecosystem
Can you explain the importance of seabirds? Many scientists consider birds indicators of a marine ecosystem’s richness and health. The more types and quantities of birds, the greater the richness and health. They are predators that consume fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. In turn they are prey to marine mammals and sharks. They supply guano – a significant source of nutrients, specially organic nitrogen important to sea life. What roles do birds play in marine ecosystems? 6. Birds play myriad roles in marine ecosystems. 7. They’re predators that consume fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. a. At times, they’re also prey to marine mammals and even sharks. 8. Seabirds supply guano (droppings), which is a significant source of nutrients to the marine ecosystem. a. This is especially true of organic nitrogen, which scientists think is produced primarily on land. b. Thus, birds that drop guano near the ocean help provide the marine ecosystem with organic nitrogen compounds.

22 Importance to the Ecosystem
They’re predators that consume fish, crustaceans, and mollusks They are prey to marine mammals and sharks Seabirds supply guano (droppings)– a significant source of nutrients, especially organic Nitrogen What roles do birds play in marine ecosystems? 6. Birds play myriad roles in marine ecosystems. 7. They’re predators that consume fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. a. At times, they’re also prey to marine mammals and even sharks. 8. Seabirds supply guano (droppings), which is a significant source of nutrients to the marine ecosystem.

23 Diversity of Marine Birds
What kind of marine birds do you know? List as many seabirds and their adaptations that you can think of on your paper Wood Stork

24 Shorebirds or Waders Have long, legs and thin, sharp bills that they use to feed in the intertidal zone Oystercatchers – long, blunt orange bills that are vertically flattened. They feed on partially opened clams, mussels and oysters as wells as other organisms in the sand Sandpipers – scurry across the sand as the surf and tide retreats feeding on small crustaceans and mollusks. Some make annual migrations close to 6000 miles. Herons – most widespread family of wading birds. Their skinny legs and long necks aid in hunting. They hunt small fish and crustaceans in shallow water by standing still and waiting for their prey to come into range.

25 Gulls Gulls are noisy, aggressive birds that are efficient predators and scavengers. They eat the eggs and young of other birds, steal prey from other birds and occasionally eat the young of other gulls. They are not picky eaters They have a worldwide distribution and are found everywhere the land and ocean meet Have webbed feet but do not usually stray far from land Usually travel in large groups and can be seen following fishing boats Black-backed gull Laughing Gull

26 Skimmers or Scissorbills
They fish along the coast by flying along with their lower bill just beneath the surface They have two unusual features Pupils that are vertical slits Lower jaw that is flexible and protrudes much farther than the upper bill Black Skimmer

27 Auks, Puffins and Murres
These birds are awkward on land In the water, they are remarkably agile, using their swimming wings to fly through the water They prey on fish, squid and shrimp The Great Auk is extinct They spend their winters in offshore waters and then gather in dense, noisy colonies in the cliffs along the Northern Atlantic and Pacific oceans in early spring. Thick-billed Murre

28 Pelicans Most are found in coastal areas
Pelicans feed just under the surface of the water, using their large gular pouches as nets. They usually patrol about 30 feet above the water and when they see a school of fish, it folds its wings back and then crashes into the water scooping up large numbers of fish It must then let the water drain from its pouch before it can become airborne again. Have webs between all four toes



31 Cormorants Some of the most adept avian fishers
Lack oil glands to waterproof their feathers, so they must dry their wings on land Swimming along the surface, they scan the water for fish and then plunge to spectacular depths in pursuit of their prey They are very strong swimmers, using their webbed feet for propulsion and keeping their wings folded close to its sides to be more streamlined

32 Cormorant Fishing

33 Tubenoses Petrels, albatrosses and shearwaters
Have a distinctive nose that may function in detecting odors and eliminating excess salts Albatrosses Suburb gliders with wings nearly 11 feet long, the largest of any bird Capable of cruising the currents of turbulent ocean air for hours at a time with barely the flick of a wing Come to land only to breed and can spend up to two years at sea before returning to breed Greater Shearwater Albatross

34 Penguins Most highly adapted birds to life in the sea
They are flightless Their bones are heavier than those of other birds to reduce buoyancy. On land, penguins are somewhat awkward. They move by hopping, waddling, or tobogganing on their bellies with their flipper-like wings Chinstrap Penguin

35 Penguins Order Sphenisciformes Only found in southern hemisphere
Cannot fly Spend as much as 75% of their time under water

36 Penguins In the sea, they are as swift and agile
They can swim at speeds of 15 miles per hour for long distances and speeds twice that if pursuing prey Their torpedo-shaped bodies are streamlined to offer less resistance in the water Their flat, webbed feet are used for steering They feed on fish, squid, and krill that are under the water They are preyed upon by leopard seals and killer whales Adelie Penguins King Penguins

37 Penguins All but one of the species live in Antarctica and other cold regions of the southern hemisphere The exception is the Galapagos penguin, which lives on the equator It can survive this region because of the cold, food-rich waters Protection against low temperatures is provided by a layer of fat under the skin and cold air is trapped by the dense, waterproof feathers – acting like a down coat. Macroni Penguin Galapagos Penguin Jackass Penguins

38 Penguins Breeding rituals vary from species to species
Emperor penguins form life-long pairs The male incubates a single large egg during Antarctic winter The female leaves to feed as soon as she lays the egg. The male must keep the egg warm by holding it between his feet and against his body for 64 days of dreadful winter cold. Adelie Penguins Emperor Penguins

39 Penguins Reproduction is timed so that the egg hatches during the productive Antarctic summer, when food is most plentiful The parents take turns feeding the chick Returning parents identify their chick among thousands by its voice and appearance. Rockhopper Penguin Rookery Emperor Penguin Chick

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