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Marine Birds. Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Birds. Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Birds

2 Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia

3 Birds Evolution

4 Birds  Advantages over reptiles:  Can fly (almost all), hollow bones  Endotherms, homeotherms (retain generated body heat and regulate it to a constant temp.)  Feathers waterproofed w/ oil  Layer of body fat (penguins)  Eggs with hard shells

5 Marine Birds  Only 3% of all bird species  Evolved from different groups of land birds  Spend significant part of life at sea  Feed on marine organisms

6 Marine Birds  Must nest on land

7 Marine Birds  Salt secreting glands  Webbed feet for swimming (not all)

8 Marine Birds  Dense waterproof plumage (except commorants and some terns)

9 Marine Birds  Migrations (not all)  Arctic tern - 24,000 mi roundtrip between Arctic and Antarctica  Sooty shearwaters - 40,000 mi/yr

10  17 species Fairy (aka Little blue) penguins – up to 16 in (recovering from oil spill) Emperor penguins - up to 45 in Penguins

11  Southern hemisphere only (Galapagos south to Antarctica) Penguins

12  Don’t fly in air, but swim very well (fly through the water)  Wings act as flippers Penguins Adelie penguins King penguin Emperor penguins

13  Eyes better adapted for underwater vision than air  Adapted for colder waters and air temps Penguins Black-footed penguin (aka African, Jackass) Gentoo penguin

14 Penguins  Larger penguins eat fish, squid  Smaller eat large plankton (krill)  Mostly feed near surface  Some dive to ft, 22 mins Galapagos penguin

15 Penguins  Nesting Magellanic penguins King penguin Gentoo penguin

16 Penguins Rockhopper penguin Macaroni penguins Yellow eyed penguins

17 Marine Birds  Tubenoses  Albatrosses, shearwaters, and petrels Albatross – longest wingspan Shearwater Storm petrel

18 Marine Birds  Pelicans and web-footed birds  Cormorants, frigates, gannets Brown pelican Cormorant NOAA NOAA Gannet Frigate

19 Marine Birds  Gulls  Jaegers/skuas, terns, puffins, razorbills Herring gull Horned puffin Least tern

20 Marine Birds Feeding strategies

21 Marine Birds Beak shapes:

22 Marine Birds Shorebirds – beak length

23 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Sandpipers, plovers, coots Sandpiper American coot Godwit

24 Piping Plovers  3 breeding populations (NE Atl. coast, Great Lakes, Great Plains)  Spend winters SE Atl. coast, Gulf of Mexico  ~6400 alive  Threatened/ endangered status

25 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Herons, egrets Great blue heron Black-crowned night heron Great egret

26 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Swans, geese, loons  Ducks, coots, grebes, mergansers Mute swans Common merganser Wood duck

27 Marine Birds  Birds of prey  Eagles, ospreys

28 Human Impacts  Pollution – pesticides, PCBs, metals Bioaccumulation, biomagnification USFWS


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