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Marine Birds. Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia.

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Presentation on theme: "Marine Birds. Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Marine Birds

2 Reptiles, Birds, Mammals  Phylum Chordata  Subphylum Vertebrata  3 Classes:  Class Reptilia  Class Aves (birds)  Class Mammalia

3 Birds http://www.phyletisches-museum.uni-jena.de/images/archaeopteryx_berlin_1864.jpg Evolution http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/~bio336/Bio336/Lectures/Lecture5/dinobird.jpg

4 Birds  Advantages over reptiles:  Can fly (almost all), hollow bones  Endotherms, homeotherms (retain generated body heat and regulate it to a constant temp.)  Feathers waterproofed w/ oil  Layer of body fat (penguins)  Eggs with hard shells

5 Marine Birds  Only 3% of all bird species  Evolved from different groups of land birds  Spend significant part of life at sea  Feed on marine organisms http://www.stanford.edu/~bhackett/los-cabos-2004-06/images/cormorant.jpg http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature12/_mg_2896a_std.jpg?1237927987http://creagrus.home.montereybay.com/SUSC-wClam5Mr08ML_8093f.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/78/243136146_c609f7f34d.jpg?v=0

6 Marine Birds  Must nest on land http://www.galenfrysinger.com/nz_north_island_gannets.htmhttp://www.scn.org/savelake/NL.Spring.2004/NL.Spring.2004_files/GreatBlueHeron.Nest.jpg

7 Marine Birds http://bio1152.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch44/44_07BirdSaltExcretGlands.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c1/Australian_pelican_feet_Pengo.jpg  Salt secreting glands  Webbed feet for swimming (not all)

8 Marine Birds  Dense waterproof plumage (except commorants and some terns) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/Phalacrocorax-auritus-007.jpghttp://www.rosssea.info/pix/big/Bullers_Albatross.jpg

9 Marine Birds  Migrations (not all)  Arctic tern - 24,000 mi roundtrip between Arctic and Antarctica  Sooty shearwaters - 40,000 mi/yr http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/images/060808-bird-migration_big.jpg

10  17 species http://images.newstatesman.com/articles/2007/980/981_p17.1.jpg Fairy (aka Little blue) penguins – up to 16 in (recovering from oil spill) Emperor penguins - up to 45 in http://www.emperor-penguin.com/emperor-pic.jpg Penguins

11  Southern hemisphere only (Galapagos south to Antarctica) Penguins http://www.penguins.cl/penguins/map.jpg

12  Don’t fly in air, but swim very well (fly through the water)  Wings act as flippers http://www.emperor-penguin.com/empswim.jpg Penguins http://www.arkive.org/media/9A/9A6D101C-6263-4EBF-A656-085BC360BEBA/Presentation.Large/photo.jpg Adelie penguins http://www.arkive.org/media/10/1007916C-1271-45FB-A448-2C5CC3901894/Presentation.Medium/King-penguin-swimming-underwater.jpg King penguin Emperor penguins

13  Eyes better adapted for underwater vision than air  Adapted for colder waters and air temps http://www.emperor-penguin.com/empswim.jpg Penguins Black-footed penguin (aka African, Jackass) Gentoo penguin

14 Penguins  Larger penguins eat fish, squid  Smaller eat large plankton (krill)  Mostly feed near surface  Some dive to 1800+ ft, 22 mins http://www.arkive.org/media/DC/DCBD3DC6-72B7-4ED4-B45D-DEAD36C50DEF/Presentation.Medium/Galapagos-penguin-with-fish-in-beak.jpg http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/files/2008/06/image_krill.jpg Galapagos penguin

15 Penguins  Nesting http://www.arkive.org/media/54/54D67DCF-ADDA-4043-BAE4-323171BC0B54/Presentation.Medium/King-penguin-incubating-egg.jpg http://www.arkive.org/media/66/66EEC887-1D96-4491-9DE0-F7F2F454259F/Presentation.Medium/Magellanic-penguin-with-chick-at-nesting-burrow.jpg http://www.arkive.org/media/A5/A55FDBCA-BE94-4B8E-BADD-BB2A850E2BED/Presentation.Medium/Gentoo-penguin-on-nest.jpg Magellanic penguins King penguin Gentoo penguin

16 Penguins http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Falkland_Islands_Penguins_88.jpg Rockhopper penguin Macaroni penguins http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Macaroni_Penguins_(js).jpg http://www.arkive.org/media/07/07E739BA-046E-49F3-A52E-4E74DC570BEF/Presentation.Medium/Pair-of-yellow-eyed-penguins-interacting-on-rocks.jpg Yellow eyed penguins

17 Marine Birds  Tubenoses  Albatrosses, shearwaters, and petrels Albatross – longest wingspan Shearwater http://www.oceanwanderers.com/Cresli.GtShwater.jpg http://scienceblogs.com/zooillogix/Albatross%20II.jpg Storm petrel http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/Oceanites_oceanicusPCCA20070623-3634B.jpg

18 Marine Birds  Pelicans and web-footed birds  Cormorants, frigates, gannets Brown pelican Cormorant NOAA http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature35/_mg_3067a_std.jpg?1237303661 http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature16/_mg_1247_std.jpg?1237846082 NOAA Gannet Frigate

19 Marine Birds  Gulls  Jaegers/skuas, terns, puffins, razorbills Herring gull Horned puffin http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature29/_mg_0029_std.jpg?1237417451 http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature16/_mg_3230_std.jpg?1237846390 Least tern http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature20/_mg_0258_std.jpg?1238880420

20 Marine Birds Feeding strategies

21 Marine Birds Beak shapes:

22 Marine Birds Shorebirds – beak length

23 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Sandpipers, plovers, coots http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature21/_mg_8004_std.jpg?1238884135 Sandpiper http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature20/_mg_9795_std.jpg?1238881492 American coot Godwit http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature21/_mg_7910_std.jpg?1238884080

24 Piping Plovers http://network.nature.com/system/photo/000/002/128/Piping%20Plover%20Parent%20and% http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/campaigns/esa_works/gallery/images2/piping-plover-Great-Lakes-USFWS-Nebraska-game-and-parks.jpg  3 breeding populations (NE Atl. coast, Great Lakes, Great Plains)  Spend winters SE Atl. coast, Gulf of Mexico  ~6400 alive  Threatened/ endangered status http://www.pc.gc.ca/pn-np/pe/pei-ipe/images/endangered_poster.gif

25 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Herons, egrets Great blue heron http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_1d4KXeNTJOM/SdByzDE4VMI/AAAAAAAAA1s/mgKYk0mD4Rk/s1600-h/GREG+Bay+Area+2+5x7_1_1.jpg Black-crowned night heron Great egret http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature10/_mg_9522_std.jpg?1238877308 http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature2/146-4663_img_std.jpg?1238264551

26 Marine Birds  Shorebirds  Swans, geese, loons  Ducks, coots, grebes, mergansers http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature35/_mg_2192a_std.jpg?1237303350 Mute swans Common merganser http://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature14/_mg_0203_std.jpg?1238877989 Wood duck

27 Marine Birds  Birds of prey  Eagles, ospreys http://buildyourownbirdhouseplans.com/images/OspreyWithFishForward.jpghttp://www.naturespicsonline.com/galleries/Nature36/_mg_6824_std.jpg?1237300679

28 Human Impacts  Pollution – pesticides, PCBs, metals Bioaccumulation, biomagnification USFWS


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