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Invertebrates Rachel Reed & Erin Baxter Importance 95-99% of all species Pollination Recycling Food in many cultures Food webs Maintenance of ecological.

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Presentation on theme: "Invertebrates Rachel Reed & Erin Baxter Importance 95-99% of all species Pollination Recycling Food in many cultures Food webs Maintenance of ecological."— Presentation transcript:


2 Invertebrates Rachel Reed & Erin Baxter

3 Importance 95-99% of all species Pollination Recycling Food in many cultures Food webs Maintenance of ecological communities

4 E.O. Wilson “If human beings were not so impressed by size alone, they would consider an ant more wonderful than a rhinoceros.”

5 Basics Aquatic vs. Terrestrial – Arboreal, aerial Anatomical Definitions – Hemolymph, exoskeleton, hydrostatic skeleton Reproductive terms – Dioecious, hermaphroditic, parthenogenesis

6 Considerations in Aquatic Care Marine vs. Freshwater Water quality Substrate, plants Light Water circulation Other species in aquaria Diet

7 Considerations in Terrestrial Care Safe, sanitary, not crowded Temperature considerations Substrate, plants Water availability & mode of delivery Arboreal species? Air circulation Diet


9 Ctenophora “Comb Jellies” Marine waters Carnivorous Diet Water requirements dependent on species Most are hermaphroditic Water Flow patterns are important

10 Phylogeny

11 Porifera “Sponges” Primarily Marine; sessile Water requirements dependent on species Unique feeding system; tiny pores; water flow necessary Reproduce by both sexual and asexual means

12 Phylogeny

13 Cnidaria AnemonesJellyfish Coral Radial symmetry,Hydrostatic skeleton, Dimorphic development Can sting!

14 Anemones Marine Need excellent water condition Most capture animal prey; zooanthellae Variable but specific temperature requirements dependent upon species Asexual reproduction Interspecific Aggression

15 Jellyfish Marine Water flow patterns Predators – have stingers! Sexual reproduction Lots of species variability

16 Coral Marine Water Quality Important! Zooxanthellae; Most capture animal prey Sexual & Asexual Reproduction Can exhibit contact inhibition and interspecific aggression in the tank Hermatypic vs Ahermatypic

17 Phylogeny

18 Echinoderms Marine Water quality important- toxicity problems Diet is largely dependent on species Asexual & sexual reproduction dependent on species Water vascular system  locomotion, gripping, feeding

19 Phylogeny

20 Sea Squirts Sessile, marine Environmental management based on species Herbivorous diet Sexual or Asexual reproduction 90% of all urochordates


22 Gastropods Marine & freshwater Sessile and mobile Filter feeders Tank Management Substrate Dioecious or hermaphroditic

23 Cephalopods Marine Aquatic Varied diet Active hunters Tank Management Dioecious r_berlin_zoo_aquarium_pd600.jpg

24 Phylogeny

25 Pogonophora & Vestimentifera Deep sea dwelling worms! Often grouped together

26 Phylogeny

27 Annelids Aquatic and terrestrial Varied diet and feeding strategies Environmental requirements dependent upon species Sexual reproduction; dioecious Biomedical & ecological importance

28 Phylogeny

29 Rotifers Most freshwater but some marine and terrestrial Omnivores Water Management Parthenogenic or dioecious

30 Phylogeny

31 Flatworms (Turbellarians) Mostly Aquatic Varied diet Commensal and parasitic Tank Management Varied reproduction


33 Nematodes Aquatic & Marine Varied diet Mostly parasitic Environment Management Dieocious or parthenogenic

34 Phylogeny

35 Tardigrades Marine, freshwater & terrestrial “Water bears” Cryptobiosis

36 Phylogeny

37 Onychophora Tropical, terrestrial Velvet worms or walking worms Prey on smaller arthropods

38 Phylogeny

39 Crustaceans Terrestrial and Aquatic Diet dependent on species Tank Management Dieocious Economic importance

40 Phylogeny

41 Insects Predominantly terrestrial Varied Diet Environmental Management Reproduction Social Systems Economical & Ecological Importance

42 Phylogeny

43 Myriapods Terrestrial Diet dependent on species Well defined environmental requirements Dieocious; some parthenogenic

44 Myriapods Millipedes Mostly herbivorous Two pairs per body segment Non-aggressive; slow Easy to handle Centipedes Mostly carnivorous One pair of legs per body segment Aggressive; fast! Extremely hard to handle; venomous

45 Millipedes Substrate: 8-10cm of soil with 3-4cm of leaf litter on top Temperature Humidity Diet: leaf litter, fruits & vegetables Reproduction

46 Centipedes Soil covered with leaf litter or mulch Temperature Humidity Light Diet: mix of live and dead invertebrates, dead pinky mice, day old chicks, adult mice, etc. Reproduction

47 Phylogeny

48 Horseshoe Crabs Marine, Aquatic Captive diet Various habitats Dieocious Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) extracted from hemolymph- Pharmaceutical use

49 Phylogeny SPIDERS!

50 Arachnids

51 Scorpions Terrestrial Carnivorous Environment: mostly desert Sexual reproduction

52 Spiders Aquatic & terrestrial Carnivores Diverse Environments Sexual Reproduction Silk!

53 Terrestrial Spiders Arboreal vs. Non-arboreal Diet Substrate Temperature & humidity Lighting

54 Aquatic Spiders Natural environment Diet Water Quality Underwater “air bells”

55 Silk Made of Amino Acids Very stable Very Strong Genetic Isolation Production Application

56 Resources Lewbart, Gregory (ed.). 2006. Invertebrate Medicine.Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa. Frye, Fredric L. 1992. Captive Invertebrates. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida. Pechenik, Jan A. 2000. Biology of the Invertebrates. McGraw-Hill. [5 th ed is 2005.]

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