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 35 Phyla  9 discussed in this lab ◦ Porifera: Sponges ◦ Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Anemones Corals ◦ Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ◦ Nematoda: Roundworms ◦

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Presentation on theme: " 35 Phyla  9 discussed in this lab ◦ Porifera: Sponges ◦ Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Anemones Corals ◦ Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ◦ Nematoda: Roundworms ◦"— Presentation transcript:

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2  35 Phyla  9 discussed in this lab ◦ Porifera: Sponges ◦ Cnidaria: Jellyfish, Anemones Corals ◦ Platyhelminthes: Flatworms ◦ Nematoda: Roundworms ◦ Annelidae: Segmented worms ◦ Mollusca: Mollusks ◦ Arthropoda: Insects, Arachnids, etc... ◦ Echinodermata: Sea Stars ◦ Chordata: Vertebrates

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4  Porifera: latin porus (pore) and Greek fera (bearing)  Sponges ◦ Greater than 9,000 species of sponges ◦ All aquatic, most marine species ◦ Pigmentation can be due to symbiotic algae ◦ Suspension feeders ◦ Adults are stationary, larvae are motile ◦ Asymmetrical, body organized as a collection of specialized cells

5  Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Corals  ~10000 species  All aquatic-most marine  One opening digestive system  Exhibit radial symmetry ◦ Body parts arranged around an imaginary axis  2 distinct body forms ◦ Polyp-stationary, example: sea anemones ◦ Medusa-free-floating, example: jellyfish ◦ Some species exist as both forms in a lifetime  Carnivorous: ◦ Stinging cells called cnidocytes ◦ Used for capturing prey and protection

6 Aurelia Jellyfish Cnidaria Fact: Praya (a deep sea hydrozoa) can reach lengths of 120 feet!

7  Flatworms  Includes ~20000 species  Two general categories: ◦ Free living and parasitic  All have flattened bodies & exhibit bilateral symmetry with a head and a tail  Centralized nervous system  One opening digestive system Platyhelminthes Fact: The longest flatworm ever found was 90 foot long tapeworm.

8  Roundworms  Currently ~90000 identified species, could be close to half a million  Bilaterally symmetrical  Can be free-living or parasitic ◦ Free living: Can eat other nematodes, microorganisms, or decaying organic material ◦ Parasitic: Can feed on animals (including humans) or plants

9  Segmented worms  ~15000 species  Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial  Body consists of head, segmented body, and terminal portion  Common groups: ◦ Polychaetes: largest group, marine ◦ Leeches: carnivorous or parasitic ◦ Earthworms: feed on decaying organic matter

10  ~ identified species  Mollusks are organized into three classes: ◦ Gastropods: snails, slugs ◦ Cephalopods: squids, octopus ◦ Bivalve: clams, oysters  Many different ways of acquiring food ◦ Fast swimming predators, passive suspension feeders, herbivores, parasites All mollusks possess a soft body, a foot (for movement), gills, mouth, and anus. Most have a grasping organ called a radula.

11  Over 1.1 Million species, most species rich phylum ◦ 85% of all animals are arthropods ◦ 75% of all animals are insects.  Exoskeleton comprised of chitin: ◦ Tough, flexible polysaccharide provides protection and prevents dehydration ◦ Exoskeleton cannot grow, must be shed and a larger one is grown, “molting”  Arthropoda refers to “jointed appendages”  Members of this phyla: crustaceans, arachnids, and insects

12  6000 species  All marine and are have radial symmetry as adults  Examples: Sea stars, brittle stars, sand dollars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea apples  Locomotion by water vascular system ◦ Water pressure is varied causing ‘tube feet’ to extend or retract  Many are carnivorous: ◦ Will feed on stationary or slowly moving invertebrates

13  A few invertebrates and all vertebrates  All possess: ◦ A hollow, dorsal nerve chord, notochord, gill structures, post-anal tail, segmented muscles  Vertebrate chordates: ◦ Fish ◦ Amphibians ◦ Reptiles ◦ Birds ◦ Mammals Chordata Fact: Less than 5% of the animals that have ever lived on Earth have backbones.

14  Structures to identify:  External: body segments, wings, leg parts, cuticle, exoskeleton, sclerites, tympanum, spiracles, cercus, ocellus, labrum, palps, maxilla, mandible, determine if male or female  Internal: brain, crop, intestine, rectum, anus, ovary, heart, hemocoel, hemolymph


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