3 Phlyogenetic tree of the animal kingdom, specifically the phyla discussed in lecture.
4 Phylum Porifera Porifera: latin porus (pore) and Greek fera (bearing) SpongesGreater than 9,000 species of spongesAll aquatic, most marine speciesPigmentation can be due to symbiotic algaeSuspension feedersAdults are stationary, larvae are motileAsymmetrical, body organized as a collection of specialized cells
5 Phylum Cnidaria Jellyfish, Sea Anemones, Corals ~10000 species All aquatic-most marineOne opening digestive systemExhibit radial symmetryBody parts arranged around an imaginary axis2 distinct body formsPolyp-stationary, example: sea anemonesMedusa-free-floating, example: jellyfishSome species exist as both forms in a lifetimeCarnivorous:Stinging cells called cnidocytesUsed for capturing prey and protection
6 Phylum Cnidaria Aurelia Jellyfish Cnidaria Fact: Praya (a deep sea hydrozoa) can reach lengths of 120 feet!
7 Phylum Platyhelminthes FlatwormsIncludes ~ speciesTwo general categories:Free living and parasiticAll have flattened bodies & exhibit bilateral symmetry with a head and a tailCentralized nervous systemOne opening digestive systemPlatyhelminthes Fact: The longest flatworm ever found was 90 foot long tapeworm.
8 Phylum Nematoda Roundworms Currently ~ identified species, could be close to half a millionBilaterally symmetricalCan be free-living or parasiticFree living: Can eat other nematodes, microorganisms, or decaying organic materialParasitic: Can feed on animals (including humans) or plants
9 Phylum Annelida Segmented worms ~15000 species Marine, freshwater, and terrestrialBody consists of head, segmented body, and terminal portionCommon groups:Polychaetes: largest group, marineLeeches: carnivorous or parasiticEarthworms: feed on decaying organic matter
10 Phylum Molusca ~150000 identified species Mollusks are organized into three classes:Gastropods: snails, slugsCephalopods: squids, octopusBivalve: clams, oystersMany different ways of acquiring foodFast swimming predators, passive suspension feeders, herbivores, parasitesAll mollusks possess a soft body, a foot (for movement), gills, mouth, and anus. Most have a grasping organ called a radula.
11 Phylum Arthropoda Over 1.1 Million species, most species rich phylum 85% of all animals are arthropods75% of all animals are insects.Exoskeleton comprised of chitin:Tough, flexible polysaccharide provides protection and prevents dehydrationExoskeleton cannot grow, must be shed and a larger one is grown, “molting”Arthropoda refers to “jointed appendages”Members of this phyla: crustaceans, arachnids, and insects
12 Phylum Echinodermata 6000 species All marine and are have radial symmetry as adultsExamples: Sea stars, brittle stars, sand dollars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea applesLocomotion by water vascular systemWater pressure is varied causing ‘tube feet’ to extend or retractMany are carnivorous:Will feed on stationary orslowly moving invertebrates
13 Phylum Chordata A few invertebrates and all vertebrates All possess: A hollow, dorsal nerve chord, notochord, gill structures, post-anal tail, segmented musclesVertebrate chordates:FishAmphibiansReptilesBirdsMammalsChordata Fact: Less than 5% of the animals that have ever lived on Earth have backbones.
14 Grasshopper Dissection Structures to identify:External: body segments, wings, leg parts, cuticle, exoskeleton, sclerites, tympanum, spiracles, cercus, ocellus, labrum, palps, maxilla, mandible, determine if male or femaleInternal: brain, crop, intestine, rectum, anus, ovary, heart, hemocoel, hemolymphStructures to identify