Alcedinidae - Kingfishers In the suborder Alcidines with the Todies and the Motmots 3 subfamiles ~ 17 Genera; ~ 91 species Worldwide excluding polar regions Only Coraciiformes in N. America 3.9”, 0.3 ounce Affrican Dwarf Kingfisher 18”, 17 ounce Laughing Kookaburra
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Large heads with long thick bills and short necks
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Most have rounded wings and short tail
Alcedinidae Momotidae (Motmots) Todidae (Todies) Cerylinae – Water Kingfishers 3 Genera; 9 spp. All of the new world kingfishers 3 old world spp. Alcedininae – River kingfishers Most of the “fishing” kingfishers 2 Genera; ~ 23 spp. Old World Daceloninae/Halcyoninae – Tree kingfishers 12 Genera; ~ 59 spp. Austalasian, Oriental, Paleoarctic & Ethiopian
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers 6 New World Species (Cerylinae) 3 of those occur in the US 2 of those occur in Arizona
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Arizona species Green Kingfisher Belted Kingfisher Small crest White collar White collar & Blue breastband Rufous bellyband White belly Rufous breast Shaggy crest
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Arizona species Green Kingfisher –Non-migratory –Secretive –Fish from perch close to the water –Fly a few inches above the surface of the water –Extreme southeast Arizona: Upper San Pedro Santa Cruz, Sonoita Creek, Cienega Creek, Arivaca Creek Rufous bellyband
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Arizona species Belted Kingfisher –Neotropic Migrant –Loud calls and obvious perches –Fish from perch or by hovering –Central to eastern Arizona drainages: Verde River Black River Upper Little Colorado River –Expanding breeding range: benefiting from human activities? »Crayfish »Construction Rufous bellyband
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Habitat requirements (for breeding areas) Clear perennial water with reliable food source Available nesting microsite
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Cavity nesters: burrows in dirt banks –River, stream, other water banks –Road banks –Gravel pits Pair excavates burrow with bills and pulls dirt out with syndactyl feet 2-3’/3-8’ long at an angle upward – flood prevention?
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Biparental care - male and female: –Build nest cavity –Incubate eggs –Feed young (2-3 weeks after fledging)
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers Other notable kingfishers Ringed Kingfisher – southern Texas –Larger than Belted –Rufous breast and smaller crest Laughing Kookaburra –Largest kingfisher at 18” –Distinct “laughing” song used erroneously in many movies as a South American/African/Asian jungle sound (Australian native) –Reverse sexual size dimorphism (female larger) Marquesas Kingfisher and Micronesian Kingfisher are both endangered
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