Presentation on theme: "Symbiosis. What is symbiosis? What are the different kinds of symbiosis? What are some examples of symbiosis? Our goal for today is to answer these."— Presentation transcript:
What is symbiosis? What are the different kinds of symbiosis? What are some examples of symbiosis? Our goal for today is to answer these questions:
What is symbiosis? the act of living together
What it means: Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship Symbiosis
What are the different kinds of symbiosis? Parasitism Mutualism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism benefits one organism is harmed Commensalism Predation Competition two species share a requirement for a limited resource the act of preying for food
Mutualism Organism One Organism Two
Commensalism Organism One Organism Two
Parasitism Organism One Organism Two
Predation Predator Prey
Acacia Plant & Ants The ants lay eggs on acacia tree so they get a nice safe place for their eggs. The acacia covers the infected area with brown flesh (called a gall.) The plant has to use valuable resources to create the gall. What symbiotic relationship is this? parasitism
Anemone & Anemone Fish mutualism This fish lives its entire adult life among the tentacles of a bulb- tentacle sea anemone. Anemone fish do not get stung by the anemone as would most other fish so they get protection from predators. The fish often drop food scraps which the anemones can eat. What symbiotic relationship is this?
Grizzly Bear & Salmon The Grizzly Bear braces itself as it waits for salmon to jump upstream to their breeding grounds. The bears rely on the salmon for nutrition. predation
Boxer Crab & Anemones This Boxer Crab carries a pair of stinging anemones in its claws, which it uses to defend itself from predators. The anemones get to move around which increases their food supply. mutualism What symbiotic relationship is this?
The remora attaches itself to the shark and saves energy since it doesn’t have to swim, and it gets to snack on the sharks kills. The shark doesn’t get anything. Shark & Remora commensalism What symbiotic relationship is this?
Elk A battle or contest between individuals, groups, animals, etc. for territory, a niche, or a location of resources. It arises whenever two or more parties strive for a goal which cannot be shared. Images from Wikimedia Competition
This tiny emperor shrimp is riding along on the back of a sea cucumber (a long worm- like starfish relative) while it crawls along a sandy bottom. The shrimp gets to travel around under the protection of its much larger partner, and the sea cucumber doesn't seem to mind. Emperor Shrimp & Sea Cucumber commensalism What symbiotic relationship is this?
Moray Eel & Cleaner Fish This moray eel has a small fish cleaning between its teeth. The eel gets a clean mouth while the cleaner fish gets a nice meal. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism
Cattle & Cattle Egrets As these cattle walk around eating grass they stir up lots of insects. The egrets hang around and get a yummy meal of insects. What symbiotic relationship is this? commensalism
Southern Elephant Seals Male on male combat occurs in many species including serious battles between male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) which use their teeth to gash competitors. Images from Wikimedia Competition
Clown Fish & Anemone This clown fish swims in the anemone and gets protection, since its predators will get stung. The anemone is unaffected. What symbiotic relationship is this? commensalism
Antelope & Ox Bird This ox bird hangs out on the antelope and gets a delicious meal of bugs living on the antelope. The antelope gets rid of parasites. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism
Loa Loa Worm & Human This worm infects human the blood stream and gets a nice warm safe home there. The human may go blind or have other complications as a result. What symbiotic relationship is this? parasitism
Goby and Alpheid Shrimp What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism This alpheid shrimp (on the right) uses its strong claws like a bulldozer to create a burrow in the sand. The shrimp is nearly blind. It relies upon its partner, the sharp-eyed goby, to warn of danger. When a potential predator approaches, both animals disappear quickly into the burrow
Hawk and Mouse Birds of prey hunt for small rodents, fish and reptiles high above ground. They have very keen eye sight which allows them to see the small prey scampering through the grass or water. Predation
Wrasse & Batfish Can you see the two cleaner wrasses are removing parasites from a batfish? One of the wrasses has entered the gill slit of the batfish, and may even enter its mouth in search of food. The batfish gets a bath and the wrasse gets a meal. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism
Hummingbird Moth & Flower This hummingbird moth is drinking the nectar of a flower. The flower gets pollinated (the moth brings pollen from other flowers) and the moth gets a tasty meal. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism
1.What is symbiosis? 2.What are the different kinds of symbiosis? 3.Describe one example of each kind of symbiotic relationship. Let’s Review Answer each of following questions on a sheet of lined paper.