Presentation on theme: "Carrying Capacity and the Factors That Determine It."— Presentation transcript:
Carrying Capacity and the Factors That Determine It
Carrying Capacity The maximum number of organisms an ecosystem can handle. Before the agricultural revolution the carrying capacity for humans was around 1 billion. What happened? Factors that influence carrying capacity are called limiting factors and can be density dependent or density independent
A typical Carrying Capacity Graph There are fluctuations because of inconsistencies in birth/death rate, among other factors.
Density Dependent Factors Density refers to how many animals occupy a certain amount of space, for instance there are about 30 students per classroom or 3 fish per gallon of pond water. Density dependent factors include: – Competition (for what?) – Predation – Parasitism and disease
Density Independent Factors The number of organisms doesn’t matter (it is INDEPENDENT OF DENSITY) Affects most organisms equally – Seasonal Cycles – Natural disasters – Human activities
What is symbiosis? What it means: Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship Literal definition: the act of living together
What are the different kinds of symbiosis? Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism is harmed
Parasitism: one benefits, one is harmed Example 1: Acacia plant with ant galls Ants lay eggs on acacia tree Acacia covers the infected area with brown flesh (gall)
Mutualism: both benefit Example 2: Moray Eel with Cleaner Fish Moray Eel gets a clean mouth Cleaner Fish gets a meal
Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Example 3: Cattle with cattle egrets Cattle stir up insects as they eat grass Egrets hang around and eat insects
Commensalism: one benefits, one is unaffected Example 4: Clown fish with anemone Clown fish gets protection Anemone is unaffected
Mutualism: both benefit Example 5: Antelope with Oxbird Antelope gets rid of parasites Oxbird gets a meal
Parasitism: one benefits, one is harmed Example 6: Taenia worm in human eye Worm infects human blood stream Human may go blind
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