Presentation on theme: "Symbiosis and Symbiotic Relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1 Symbiosis and Symbiotic Relationships 2012HappyEdugator
2 Our goal for today is to answer these questions: What is symbiosis?What are the different kinds of symbiosis?What are some examples of symbiosis?
3 A close relationship that SymbiosisA close relationship thatbenefitsat least oneof the species in the relationship.Literal translation: living together2012HappyEdugator
4 Symbiosis Three types: Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism 2012HappyEdugator
5 What are the different kinds of symbiosis? MutualismCommensalismParasitismboth organisms benefitone organism benefitsone organism benefitsone organism is unaffectedone organism is harmed
6 SymbiosisThe three types of symbiosis often overlap. Generally, scientists classify the relationships between organisms based on the most obvious traits.CommensalismParasitismMutualismIs the fish just hitchhiking?(commensalism)Is the fish cleaning the shark whileit is being protected from predators?(mutualism)Is the fish feasting on shark blood?(parasitism)2012HappyEdugator
7 Mutualism A relationship in which both species benefit. Example: Bees and FlowersBees rely on the flower for a food source. The flower benefits because the bee picks up pollen and transports it to another flower. This aids in the reproduction of the plant.2012HappyEdugator
8 Organism One Organism Two MutualismOrganism One Organism Two
9 Another example:Cleaner shrimp cleaning a zebra moray eel. Mutualistic relationships such as these promote the well-being of the host fishes and provide food for those that do the cleaning.2012HappyEdugator
10 CommensalismA relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped or harmed.Example: Barnacles adhere to the skin of a whale or scallop : (Barnacles are crustaceans whose adults are sedentary and will attach anywhere)The barnacle benefits from the relationship and does not harm or help its host.2012HappyEdugator
11 CommensalismPure commensalism is usually harder to find in nature because upon examination you often find that both species do benefit in some way. However, it’s not obvious at first glance.Example: As a large beetle spreads its wings to fly, a teeny tiny hitchhiker is seen going for a free ride. The pseudoscorpion, spider-like and very tiny, often gets around by hiding under the wing covers of large beetles. Not only does it get a lift to a new destination, but it gains protection from predators as well. As far as we can tell, the beetle gets no benefit from carrying around this stowaway. The pseudoscorpion gains all the advantage in this relationship.2012HappyEdugator
12 Other examples:The cattle egret feeds on insects stirred up by the herds of livestock in the fields. The livestock generally do not benefit from this… BUT…they have been seen feeding on ticks as they perch on the backs of the livestock.The anemone fish lives among the forest of tentacles of an anemone and is protected from potential predators that are not immune to the sting of the anemone.2012HappyEdugator
13 Organism One Organism Two CommensalismOrganism One Organism Two
14 Inside parasites (endoparasite): tapeworms and hookworms. ParasitismA relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another and as the one benefits, the other is harmed.hookwormExamples: Outside parasites (ectoparasite): fleas, and ticks.fleaInside parasites (endoparasite): tapeworms and hookworms.tapewormstick2012HappyEdugator
15 Example: ParasiteSea Lamprey: These primitive fish attach to the bodies of native fish and feed on the fish's body fluids.2012HappyEdugator
16 Another Parasitism Example This tomato hornworm is covered with cocoons of pupating braconid wasps.The wasp causes the tomato hornwormto dieas it pupates.2012HappyEdugator
17 Yet another example: brood parasitism The cowbird will lay its eggs in other birds nests. These eggs usually hatch a day earlier than the host eggs. The baby cowbirds take over the nest and aggressively take food meant for the offspring of the host.2012HappyEdugator
18 Organism One Organism Two ParasitismOrganism One Organism Two
19 Which symbiotic relationship is this? Acacia Plant & AntsStinging ants nest in acacia tree, whose thorns discourage the ants’ predators. The tree also provides ants with food. Ants attack other animals that approach the tree & clear competing plants away from the base of the tree.mutualismWhich symbiotic relationship is this?
20 Which symbiotic relationship is this? Shark & RemoraThe remora attaches itself to the shark and saves energy since it doesn’t have to swim. It snacks on the sharks’ kills. The shark doesn’t get anything.commensalismWhich symbiotic relationship is this?
21 Emperor Shrimp & Sea Cucumber This tiny emperor shrimp is riding along on the back of a sea cucumber. The shrimp gets to travel around under the protection of its much larger partner, and the sea cucumber doesn't seem to mind.commensalismWhich symbiotic relationship is this?
22 Which symbiotic relationship is this? Clown Fish & AnemoneThis clown fish swims among the sea anemone and gets protection, since its predators will get stung by the sea anemone. The anemone gets prey lured its way.Which symbiotic relationship is this?mutualism
23 Which symbiotic relationship is this? Loa Loa Worm & HumanThis worm infects humans through their blood stream and gets a nice warm safe home. The human may go blind or have other complications as a result.Which symbiotic relationship is this?parasitism
24 Barnacle & the Whale Barnacles regularly colonize the skin of filter-feeding whales, and they often do so in huge numbers — one humpback whale, for instance, can host almost 1,000 pounds of barnacles.2012HappyEdugator
25 Which symbiotic relationship is this? Cattle & EgretsAs these cattle walk around eating grass they stir up lots of insects. The egrets hang around and get a yummy meal of insects.Which symbiotic relationship is this?commensalism
26 Answer each of following questions. Let’s ReviewAnswer each of following questions.What is symbiosis?What are the different kinds of symbiosis?Describe one example of each kind of symbiotic relationship.