Presentation on theme: "United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Recent activities of UNESCO on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) UNESCO activities."— Presentation transcript:
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Recent activities of UNESCO on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) UNESCO activities and outlook Dr Annukka Lipponen International Hydrological Programme
Various ways of recharge occurring – need for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR)
UNESCO IHP activities on MAR Close cooperation with the main technical/scientific advisory, International Association of Hydrogeologists (MAR Commission) Capacity building and identification of regional needs and constraints in applying MAR: regional workshops Sharing of scientific knowledge and networking in MAR: support to participants in developing countries to attend international MAR symposia Dissemination of case studies, results of MAR research and technical guidance: publications Development of demonstration projects
Johannesburg Type II Partnership September 2002 UNESCO IHP & Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory Phase II approved for implementation June 2006-June 2008: Towards adaptation measures to human and climate change impacts 2.5 M€
I Phase Components: Algeria: Integrated water resouces management in North Africa Yemen:Desalination system supplied by renewable energies Eritrea: human capacity enhancement for effective water resources and land management Vietnam:Fight against desertification: ground-water artificial recharge Egypt: Regional training programme for African countries on Groundwater resources in IWRM and for MENA countries on Artificial Recharge.
Training courses and educational materials produced
Photo, Pond scraping, Amsterdam Dune Area: Olstshoorn, Amsterdam Water Supply IHE –UNESCO WATER EDUCATION INSTITUTE 18 month International Master Programme in Water Science and Engineering Module: Storage & Hydropower Advanced understanding on main principles and practices used in the analysis and hydraulic design of dams for storage, level regulation and hydropower development. Principles of construction and operation. Principles and operation of the sediment in reservoirs and operation rules. Evaluating the impacts of in stream flow works over the appropriate timescales. Advanced knowledge on use of the surface and underground storage for water harvesting. Systems for rain and floodwater harvesting.
3 rd generation type of project: “Natural and social sciences research and information exchange” Sustainable Management of Marginal Drylands (SUMAMAD), 2004 to ? 9 research sites in 8 countries involved: - 5 sites belong to scientific institutions - 4 biosphere reserves Sponsored by various partners: - Flemish Government of Belgium; - Chinese Academy of Sciences; - UNESCO (MAB & IHP) - UNU - ICARDA
Hunshandake Sandland / Xilon Gol Biosphere Reserve (HS), CHINA Haihe River Basin (HRB), CHINA Omayed Biosphere Reserve (OBR), EGYPT Gareh Bygone Plain (GBP), IRAN Dingarh/ Lal Sohanra Biosphere Reserve (D/LSBR), PAKISTAN Dana Biosphere Reserve (DBR), JORDAN Khanasser Valley Integrated Research Site (KVIRS), SYRIA Zeuss-Koutine Watershed (ZKW), TUNISIA Karnab Chul (KC), UZBEKISTAN
Fars Research Centre for Natural Resources and Animal Husbandry (Iran): “UN-Habitat International Prize for Best Practices to Improve the Living Environment”
Recent IHP supported events on MAR Regional Workshop on Management of Aquifer Recharge and Water Harvesting in Arid and Semi-arid Regions in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran 27-30 November 2004 MAR workshop in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2004 Regional Workshop on Training of Trainers on Management of Artificial Recharge (MAR) and Rainwater Harvesting Projects Lahore – Pakistan, 25th April - 2nd May, 2005 ISMAR-5 International Symposium, June 2005, Berlin, Germany ISMAR-6 International Symposium, October 28- November 2, 2007, Phoenix, Arizona
Guiding principles from the regional MAR workshop held in Lahore, Pakistan in 2005 1) MAR is a proven method for enhancing water resources across a diverse range of settings in arid and semi-arid areas 2) MAR alone will not resolve the issue of groundwater overexploitation, nor water security in general, but rather, can form an important component of an integrated package that also includes measures to conserve water and reuse water and wastewater.
Main recommendations from the regional MAR workshop held in Lahore, Pakistan in 2005 1)Perform regional scale mapping of MAR and rainwater harvesting potential 2)Establish one or more demonstration projects in each of the nations across the region 3)Establish methods to systematically evaluate the technical performance of MAR and rainwater harvesting at the demonstration sites 4)Improve access to information on the science and practice of MAR and rainwater harvesting 5)Maintain and improve the technical skills of the engineers and scientists undertaking MAR and rainwater harvesting and build capacity of the institutions they represent
Key policy issues related to MAR (+WH) identified in Yazd Integrated water resource management (IWRM) strategies should recognize rainwater as an additional water resource, in addition to surface and groundwater. Introduce and reinforce appropriate legislation and regulations to ensure demand management as a measure towards controlling water levels and stabilizing abstraction, notably to protect shallow aquifers and ecosystems The involvement of all stakeholders in planning and decision-making is needed as basis of equity and sustainability over the proposed development of new resources. There needs to be devolution towards community involvement in water management in favour of small to medium scale ventures involving WH and MAR Monitoring strategies and protection guidelines must be improved through adaptive governance to detect improvements as well as deterioration in water levels and quality, to undertake appropriate and timely remedial actions. Case studies of both good and bad practice should be documented for better policy formulation and implementation.
Technical MAR issues and challenges recognized in Yazd Sediment migration was identified as a significant clogging hazard that is managed with a variety of techniques Traditional knowledge and technologies in the region (especially qanats) are shown to be highly effective and their persistence over two millennia provides a model of sustainability. This knowledge needs to be maintained, disseminated and built upon. There is a need to characterize active groundwater recharge versus palaeo-groundwater using suitable chemical and isotopic tracers as a basis of sustainable management and as a foundation for MAR.
principles of managing aquifer recharge activities and achievements of the major international players Strategies for managing Aquifer recharge in semi-arid areas
Strategies for MAR (available on the Internet) Contents Objectives of MAR Water quality issues and sources of recharge water (surface water, storm-water runoff, reclaimed water & potable water) Hydrogeological settings and controls on recharge Methodologies for MAR Institutional issues in MAR schemes Examples
MAR in IHP-VII strategic plan (2008- 2013) Activities foreseen Managing groundwater systems' response to global changes “Improve understanding of the effectiveness of Rainwater Harvesting as it applies to Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), through continued support of initiatives such as those of IAH-MAR, and related activities, publication of findings and demonstration projects.” Augmenting scarce water resources, especially in SIDS Undertake research to enhance resilience of water supplies of coastal, island and arid area communities, to mitigate saline intrusion and land subsidence, to flush saline aquifers using low energy methods, such as MAR, to find uses for desalination brines or ways of safely disposing of these in inland areas, and to evaluate the environmental impact of large scale desalination. Review of innovation in methods available, including MAR, rainwater harvesting and water reuse for improved urban and rural water management, and report exemplar case studies that document implementation, effectiveness, durability and limitations of these strategies in addressing water scarcity and water quality issues. Guidelines on MAR and water reuse that highlight synergies with complementary natural resources management programmes related to biodiversity, sediments, salinity and land degradation and broader adaptations to climate change for improved water and food security.
Project: Network on Managed Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Supplies Lead: Dr Peter Dillon, CSIRO, Australia Opportunity to expand MAR network Open for e.g. regional centres to participate through organisation of training on MAR Actions: 1) establish training centres; 2) locate funds to identify opportunities for MAR projects; 3) tools to assess viability, risk assessment, governance (1.5 million Aus$ committed by Australian Government); 4) establish a network to link centres