AQUATIC WEEDS Flowering Plants Emergent Rooted and emerging above water surface Rooted and emerging above water surface
AQUATIC WEED GROWTH LIGHT Photic zone is the water with enough light to support growth Bottom of photic zone is 1% of full sunlight Silt water = 3" Clear water as deep as 300'
AQUATIC WEED GROWTH NUTRIENTS Nitrogen and phosphorus Phosphorus is the limiting nutrient Most important to free-floating plants Most important to free-floating plants P pollution can cause algal blooms Runoff is major contributor
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Nutrient control Buffer vegetation on shore Unmowed strip Unmowed strip
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Non-toxic blue dyes Blocks light below 2'
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Biological Alligatorweed Flea Beetle Release controlled alligatorweed where flea beetle can overwinter Release controlled alligatorweed where flea beetle can overwinter Water Hyacinth Mites, weevils and fungus released Mites, weevils and fungus released Limited success Limited success
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Aeration Fountains and turbines Aerobic conditions support microbes and fish Aerobic conditions support microbes and fish Reduce algae? Reduce algae?
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Grass carp Triploid (sterile) Consume massive amounts of algae and weeds Live 10 years
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Tilapia Feed on algae Harvest to eat
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Barley bales Releases natural chemical Green water only
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL UV Filter Water passes by UV bulb Controls algae only Algal cells clump together or die
AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Chemicals Some that are labeled for aquatic use Consult label Liquid, granule or pellet formulation Sinker adjuvant Sinker adjuvant
AQUATIC HERBICIDES Copper Sulfate (Cutrine) Controls algae in drinking water supplies Alkaline water (high carbonates) precipitate out copper Copper Chelates more stable in alkaline water Copper Chelates more stable in alkaline water
AQUATIC HEBRICIDES Emerged or floating weeds Diquat (Reward) Less effective in muddy water Less effective in muddy water 2,4-D (Aquacide) Glyphosate (Rodeo)
AQUATIC HEBRICIDES HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS Start control early to avoid oxygen depletion Repeat other half after 2 weeks Repeat other half after 2 weeks
Fish Kill MO decomposing plant material utilizes oxygen Heavy weed or algae kill can deplete oxygen from water and kill fish Control only 1/2 of area High temperatures have less oxygen More susceptible to fish kill More susceptible to fish kill
AQUATIC HEBRICIDES Volume needed for algae and free floating weeds Acre-feet = surface area (acres) X average depth Average depth Half of maximum depth Half of maximum depthOR Average of several measurements Average of several measurements
Kiawah 115 ponds 343 acres 49 miles of shoreline
Kiawah Bivalves (clams) filtering capacities Attaching to grid to floating wetlands, sinking them Herbicide Bioaugmentation Tilapia and Grass Carp Cost about $19/A annually