For Starters: Wine Tips/Misconceptions Wines with corks are of better quality? Wines with screw-caps look cheap and of low quality? Wines with beautiful labels must be quality wines? Wines with simple labels must be cheap wines? Only red wines age well
Anatomy of grape & vine
In simple terms
How wine is made? Pick large quantity of ripe grapes from the grape vine. To be noted raspberries, strawberries, and other fruits can be used to make wine, yet 99% of wine in the world is made from grapes. Why because grapes produce the best quality wine. Which is why wines made from other fruits aren’t as popular and hard to find in stores. Selecting the grapes: look for good quality, none that look like raisins, none that aren’t ripe, none that have blemishes on them. Put grapes in clean container that doesn’t leak this will be used for fermenting(oak barrels, and stainless steel vats most commonly used).
Making wine cont. Maceration: (red wines only) The contact phase in wine making where the MUST and grape skins have maximum contact, producing god red wine color. The more contact grapes have with their skins the bolder the flavor will be. Must: The freshly pressed grapes, consisting of all the bits of the grape as well as the juice of the grape. Acidification: When acid is added to low acidic wines during the fermentation process. Enrichment: When grapes that aren’t ripe enough have sugar added to them to ferment proper wines.
Making wine cont. Steering the lees: (wht wine only) involving mixing up residual yeast that is left from post fermentation allowing more flavors to surface. After quality grapes are selected enrichment is endured or acidification is endured the grapes are mashed (traditionally done with feet), the mashed grapes release grape juice, and this mashed up remain is called the MUST. LET THE FERMENTATION PROCESS BEGIN!!
Wine fermentation You will need ( wine MUST, fermenting container, wine fermenting yeasts, heat source, time) When wine fermenting yeasts are done working the by product is wine in a nutshell. These yeasts help metabolize glucose present in the grape juice, using oxygen to release carbon dioxide which in turn releases ethyl-alcohol. Thus wine. When the sugar is no longer present in the grape juice oxygen is absent, carbon dioxide is present, alcohol is released. The more sugar present in the MUST the higher alcohol level produce in the wine.
Fermentation cont. The riper and sweeter the grape the more sugar the grape will have and the more alcohol the wine will have. That is why late harvest rieslings have shaved skins to keep the MUST sweeter. The size of the fermenting container, temperature of fermentation, length of fermentation all alter the proof of the wine as well as the overall taste. Fermentation can last 3 days, several weeks, or a couple of months. The wine then matures for weeks, or months. Then the wine is ready to drink.
RULE OF THUMB! White wine that looks like tequila is spoiled wine. Red wines should be kept at room temp. to get best flavors from the wine you are drinking. Once a wine is refrigerated it must stay refrigerated till it is finished. Refrigerated wine should be kept at 42 degrees F. Room temp. wine should be stored at around 65 degrees F.
SPOILED WINE AKA vinegar
WINE & Germany The main wine region in germany is the Rhine, harvesting ripe grapes in late summer early autumn (September-early November). German wines are drank on their own, and in later with coffee. Yet they are more commonly served during or after meals. The most popular of the german wines is the RIESLING or the DESERT/ICE WINE.
TYPES OF WINE GLASSES Ballon Sherry Champagne Champagne Saucer Champagne Tulip Large Champagne Saucer Red wine White wine
WHITE WINE GLASS
RED WINE GLASSES
RIESLING WINES Also known as ICE wines, & dessert wines (Although ice wines are a specific type of riesling) ICE wine or eiswein is a style of dessert wine made from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine. With ice wines the sugars and other solids do not freeze yet the water does, this allows a more concentrated grape must to be pressed from the frozen grapes which results in a smaller more concentrated sweeter wine. Ice wine grapes are not by botrytis cinerea/nobel rot. Only the healthy ice wine grapes last until ice wine grape harvest which is also known as a late harvest where in extreme cases can be picked all the up till new years.
ICE WINE CONT. The late harvesting of ice wines coupled with its fermenting process result in characteristics of sweetness balanced with high acidity. To be noted ice wine grapes stay frozen before fermentation, another words freezing happens before fermentation.
Ice wine picking
SERVING RIESLING The sweeter the wine the higher the serving temp. Rieslings effected by botrytis aren’t improved by over chilling them, in fact over chilling them tightens up the volatile aromas. Keep in mind standard fridges are set at around 38 deg. F (3 DEG. C). The sweeter the wine the higher the serving temp. Rieslings effected by botrytis aren’t improved by over chilling them, in fact over chilling them tightens up the volatile aromas. Keep in mind standard fridges are set at around 38 deg. F (3 DEG. C).
BEST SERVIG TEMPS Dry riesling degrees F (6-8 C) Sweet riesling degrees F (7-10 C) Ice wines degrees F (8-9 C) Botrytized riesling/rieslings specifically made to get botrytis, degrees F (11-12 C) Sparkling riesling 45 degrees F (7 C) Most liquor stores have their coolers set at 46 degrees F to compromise for multiple styles of wine being kept cold at the same time in the same cooling unit.
FOOD & RIESLING Very versatile food pairing wine, due to its fine balance of sugar and acidity. It pairs well with cuisines of: European, Mexican, Middle Eastern, & Fusion. Classic pairings are as follows:
The petrol note is considered to be caused by the compound 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), which during the aging process is created from carotenoid precursors (terpenes) by acid hydrolysis. The initial concentration of precursors in the wine determines the wine’s potential to develop TDN and petrol notes over time. From what is known of the production of carotenoids in grapes, factors that are likely to increase the TDN potential are: Ripe grapes (accentuated by low yields and/or late harvest) High light exposure Water stress, which is most likely in regions that don’t practice irrigation. This primarily occurs in dry vineyard sites during warm and low-rain years Warm soils (gravel, etc.) These factors are usually also considered to contribute to high-quality Riesling wines. The petrol note is, in fact, more likely to develop in top Riesling wines than in simpler wines made from high-yielding vineyards. Riesling grown in warmer climates, such as Alsace, will tend to exhibit the petrol character earlier in their post-bottling development. A discreet amount of petrol aromatics is a great enhancer, too much can be a bit of a turn-off. Rieslings character
beauty in balance: sweetness to acidity Several factors affect the impression of a Riesling wine’s sweetness on the palate. As residual sugar increases, the impression of sweetness increases. The sweetness from the sugar interacts with: The acidity (malic and tartaric acids) and the level of dissolved carbon dioxide, which offers a sense of freshness The phenolic content, which offers astringency and body The ethanol content, which brings a feeling of weight, warmth and dryness on the finish The pH, which accentuates the expression of the acids and reduces the sensation of sweetness as it goes down For example, a Riesling with 1.5% (grams/liter) residual sugar can appear either dry or sweet. If the wine is 12.5% alcohol with a pH level below 3.0 and an acid level above 9 g/L, the wine will appear to be quite dry. If the wine is 10% alcohol with a pH level of 3.3 and an acid level around 6 g/L, the wine will seem relatively sweet. Its all about balance
Riesling is a very hardy grape variety that thrives in cool climates and relatively poor soils. The grape requires a long growing season to ripen properly. In warmer climates, Riesling can lose its acid backbone, which is a main characteristic that helps make the wine bright, complex and balanced. Riesling wines generally do not respond well to newish, small oak barrels, preferring to be vinified and aged in stainless steel or larger neutral wood containers. Riesling is a very aromatic and expressive grape variety, offering impressions of fresh flowers like honeysuckle and jasmine. Riesling’s aromas and flavors are often compared to orchard fruits like apple, peach, apricot (the apricot aroma is often a characteristic of the wonderful “noble rot”) and even the tropical-scented lychee or guava. Riesling wines are often described as tasting clean, racy and bright. Aged Riesling can take on more complex aromas which, in high quality wines, can include an aromatic expression of petrol, diesel or linalool. Riesling’s compact bunches and small berries make it prone to rot (some of which is beneficial and necessary to make certain styles of wine). Noble rot (Botrytis cinerea) dehydrates ripe grapes, concentrating them to a point where they are capable of producing very memorable, rich, long-lived dessert wines. What a character
origin of term “hock” Hock is the shortened form for the now obsolete word Hochheimer, after the German town of Hochheim that pioneered the use of the tall, slender shaped bottle. The town’s name and its successful wines provided the inspiration for the name of the bottle shape. The term was certainly in use in Shakespeare’s day, as “hock” was a beverage loved o’erwell by Falstaff. Hock style riesling wine bottle
How to know its a german wine and not just a german style domestic wine It will say on the bottle (German style from....) Imported wines will have a seal,stamp, tag of approval allowing them to be shipped into U.S. borders. Once in U.S. borders the imported wines go to wine distributers. The distributers put a label on the wine saying it was shipped from Germany to them, and they ship it to the retailers with in the U.S.
WORKS CITED "The Pocket Bartender's Guide [Hardcover]." The Pocket Bartender's Guide: Michael JACKSON: Amazon.com: Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr