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This cartoon (1819) says a lot about what will happen in the Radical Phase of the French Revolution. What details do you see in this cartoon and what might.

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Presentation on theme: "This cartoon (1819) says a lot about what will happen in the Radical Phase of the French Revolution. What details do you see in this cartoon and what might."— Presentation transcript:

1 This cartoon (1819) says a lot about what will happen in the Radical Phase of the French Revolution. What details do you see in this cartoon and what might that mean about what will happen? Who could have made this cartoon and why? What statement is being made in this cartoon?

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5 Identify the causes of the Radical Phase during the French Revolution Analyze the decisions of the French Government during the Radical Phase Evaluate the actions of Maximillien Robespierre during the Radical Phase Examine the fragility of Democracy

6 1.Moderate Phase (National/Legislative Assembly) –France becomes Constitutional monarchy 2.Radical Phase /5 –Reign of Terror 3.The Directory Age of Napoleon

7 The “sword” has been violent –Peasants –Paris Government (pen) has made the right moves with new Constitution, but the LA has made a mistake…

8 2 Threats –Internal –External The threats all attack at the same time…what a mess! What chaos! (hmm)

9 2nd Constitution is made in Sept –Legislative Assembly now called the National Convention EG-NA-LA-NC –New gov is a… –What is King Louis XVI? –Suffrage for all males –More Conservative or Liberal than the past Constitution?

10 Leaders (co-GWs) –George Danton = Minister of Justice  –Maximilien Robespierre Two factions/parties from within the Jacobins lead the NC –Mountain = Radicals –Girondins = Moderates  What will happen between the 2 parties?

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12 What to do with Louis XVI? –Alive or dead? Who wants what? monarchy always a threat Louis and Marie are helping the enemy –Some think you can’t truly move forward until the monarchy is dead and gone (Dr. Zhivago)

13 France losing war with European coalition… –Panic in Paris (blame…) August 1792, Louis XVI attacked again by mob in Tuileiries Palace –Not killed –Royalists were killed in prisons Why is this a problem?

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18 January 1793, Louis XVI on trial as regular citizen (the charge?) –life almost spared…by whom? “Jacobins” have him executed Louis XVI is executed like what English King?

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20 2 more threats –I–Internal –E–External The threats all attack at the same time…what a mess! What chaos! (hmm)

21 Violence inside France from two sources… –Counter-Revolutionary rebels in France who are resisting the Revolution –Sans-Culottes (where) who want to do what with the Revolution? What recipe does France need? –Order!! –What has to be prevented?

22 Jean Paul Marat –Writer and radical who has a newspaper –Tells sans-culottes who is new enemy to kill or capture –Promotes violence –But he’s a Jacobin, so he’s on the side of some powerful men

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24 Committee of Public Safety –Created in 1793 (2 nd year of Radical Phase) –Created by Danton –Led by Robespierre –Group of 12 men in the NC that run everything –Goal????????? (spectrum)

25 a.Solution for the External Threat = A Nation in Arms –Order citizens to join January 1793 – 650K army September 1793 – 1.2 million army (largest ever in Euro History at that point) –Army begins to win along border and take land

26 Jean Paul Marat Killed July 13, 1793 –by Charlotte Corday, a Counter- Revolutionary Painting makes him look like? His assassination creates a ripple effect…what is it?

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28 What was it? What was part of it? How was it seen throughout France? What inspired it? Who were the leaders of it? Thoughts?

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31 Reign of Terror –After Marat was killed –September 1793 to July one year –Committee protects Republic with execution of internal enemies –Who are enemies?

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33 What classes?

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35 October 1793 Unfair, quick trial Accused of many crimes…why again? –Orgies in Versailles –Ordering murders –WORST ONE…Molesting her son She makes a moving speech Executed at 38

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39 The Vendee (western France) –42 percent of all executions –Towns wiped out Lyons (central France) –Used cannons when guillotine overused Marseilles (southern France) –Blood poured down street from guillotine Democracy?? –What has taken its place?

40 Left = JacobinsCenter = Girondins Right = Conservatives and Royalists -Robespierre will TRY to kill them last -Killed 2nd-Killed 1st

41 50K killed in 9 months Royalist rebels, Peasants, Girondins killed Jacobins will be all that is left –Jacobins What else is preventing a true “Republic” from happening? –Religion!!!

42 “saint” removed from street names Cathedrals shut down and renamed Why do this?

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44 Inspired by what to the worst degree? –Enlightenment God not worshiped inside new temples… –Female figure personifying Liberty rises out of Temple of Reason

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46 Started October 5, 1793 Year 1 begins on September 1792…(?) Gregorian Calendar eliminated

47 3 weeks 10 days a “decade” No Sunday…why? –Only 1 day of rest! primidi (first day) duodi (second day) tridi (third day) quartidi (fourth day) quintidi (fifth day) sextidi (sixth day) septidi (seventh day) octidi (eighth day) nonidi (ninth day) décadi (tenth day)

48 The Republican calendar year began at the autumn equinox and had twelve months of 30 days each, which were given new names based on nature: Autumn: –Vendémiaire (from Latin vindemia, "vintage") Starting Sept 22, 23 or 24VendémiaireSept 22 –Brumaire (from French brume, "mist") Starting Oct 22, 23 or 24BrumaireOct 22 –Frimaire (From French frimas, "frost") Starting Nov 21, 22 or 23FrimaireNov 21 Winter: –Nivôse (from Latin nivosus, "snowy") Starting Dec 21, 22 or 23NivôseDec 21 –Pluviôse (from Latin pluviosus, "rainy") Starting Jan 20, 21 or 22PluviôseJan 20 –Ventôse (from Latin ventosus, "windy") Starting Feb 19, 20 or 21VentôseFeb 19 Spring: –Germinal (from Latin germen, "seed") Starting Mar 20 or 21GerminalMar 20 –Floréal (from Latin flos, "flower") Starting Apr 20 or 21FloréalApr 20 –Prairial (from French prairie, "meadow") Starting May 20 or 21PrairialMay 20 Summer: –Messidor (from Latin messis, "harvest") Starting Jun 19 or 20MessidorJun 19 –Thermidor (from Greek thermos, "hot") Starting Jul 19 or 20ThermidorJul 19 –Fructidor (from Latin fructus, "fruits") Starting Aug 18 or 19FructidorAug 18

49 10 hours a day (each hour over twice as long as conventional hour) 100 minutes in each hour. Each minute was slightly longer than conventional minute Each second shorter than conventional second

50 Big Mistake…why? Laughed at by Europe Wheezy, Sneezy and Freezy; Slippy, Drippy and Nippy; Showery, Flowery and Bowery; Wheaty, Heaty and Sweety

51 Left = JacobinsCenter = moderates and Girondins Right = Conservatives and Royalists -Robespierre will TRY to kill them next!!! -Killed 2nd-Killed 1st

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53 Jacobins arrest Robespierre for making lists with more enemies of Rev Robespierre and Saint- Just executed Jacobins overthrown in Thermidor –Group that overthrows them are called Thermidorians

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55 What follows the Jacobin overthrow in Thermidor? –Committee of Public Safety weakened –Jacobin Club shut down –Paris mobs suppressed –Churches reopened –Laissez-Faire economic policies return

56 “Since the French people has manifested its will, everything opposed to it is outside the sovereign. Whatever is outside the sovereign is the enemy” –Louis de Saint-Just

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58 The principal concern of constitutional government is civil liberty; that of revolutionary government, public liberty. Under a constitutional government little more is required than to protect the individual against abuses by the state, whereas revolutionary government is obliged to defend the state itself against factions that assail it from every quarter. To good citizens revolutionary government owes the full protection of the state; to the enemies of the people it owes only death

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60 1.Moderate Phase (National/Legislative Assembly) –France becomes Constitutional monarchy 2.Radical Phase /5 –Reign of Terror 3.The Directory Age of Napoleon

61 3 rd Constitution written May 1795 –Made by Moderates (Survived Girondins) 2-House Leg (NLA) –Council of 500… –Council of Elders… Pick 5 Directors (Executive Branch or Cabinet) –How were these 750 men picked for office? –Who could vote? Spectrum?? Poor decisions by Directory?

62 Old Order returns Corrupt and Weak War with Austria and GB riots over economy from sans-cullotte Relied on army too much to suppress rebellions –What happens to the army? –1799, army launches coup d'état on the Directory…led by???


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