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English Empire Note in 1707 England and Scotland became unified and from then on known as Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "English Empire Note in 1707 England and Scotland became unified and from then on known as Britain."— Presentation transcript:

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2 English Empire Note in 1707 England and Scotland became unified and from then on known as Britain

3 Role of England England weak, politically and economically in comparison to Spain. England weak, politically and economically in comparison to Spain. Henry VII sponsored John Cabot’s voyages to Canada 1497 Henry VII sponsored John Cabot’s voyages to Canada 1497 lost interest when NW passage not discovered. lost interest when NW passage not discovered. Lack of political will, and military capacity to challenge Spain before later 16thC Lack of political will, and military capacity to challenge Spain before later 16thC

4 Ireland Ireland conquered by Normans, but gradually England lost control. Ireland conquered by Normans, but gradually England lost control. Tudors show renewed interest. Tudors show renewed interest. Military expeditions during Elizabethan Age Military expeditions during Elizabethan Age led by soldiers & adventurers. led by soldiers & adventurers.

5 Followed up by colonizers Followed up by colonizers Seeking land holdings and use of Gaelic Irish as serfs, Seeking land holdings and use of Gaelic Irish as serfs, frequent atrocities and brutality towards Irish frequent atrocities and brutality towards Irish About 200,000 migrants from GB to Ireland About 200,000 migrants from GB to Ireland

6 Ireland as a blueprint Finance Finance Promotional literature Promotional literature Attitudes towards native peoples Attitudes towards native peoples Individuals involved Individuals involved e.g. e.g. Richard Grenville, Richard Grenville, Humphrey Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Walter Raleigh. Walter Raleigh.

7 Video Questions 1 1. Shift in seventeenth century Virginia away from indentured servant labor was accompanied by 1. Shift in seventeenth century Virginia away from indentured servant labor was accompanied by a) increasing tobacco production. b) slowing rates of population growth. c) accelerating movement toward democracy. d) using race as a dividing line among the poor.

8 Video Questions 2 2. Professor Karen Kupperman refers to property ownership in colonial Virginia as a "double-edged sword" because it 2. Professor Karen Kupperman refers to property ownership in colonial Virginia as a "double-edged sword" because it a) applied to both land and labor. b) guaranteed both whites and blacks the right to vote. c) Tended to destroy a sense of community. d) Gave women a cause to complain about.

9 English Imperial Ambitions Motivation: Motivation: Envy of Spanish Colonial treasure Envy of Spanish Colonial treasure Wealth helped Spain become most powerful nation; Wealth helped Spain become most powerful nation; English policy: English policy: Break the Iberian monopoly on America Break the Iberian monopoly on America fear that American wealth, after Henry VIII's split with Rome (1534), could be used against them. fear that American wealth, after Henry VIII's split with Rome (1534), could be used against them. English sanctioned privateering operations. English sanctioned privateering operations. Captured Spanish treasure ships bringing gold & silver from New World. Captured Spanish treasure ships bringing gold & silver from New World.

10 By 1580 increasingly dangerous to prey on Spanish shipping By 1580 increasingly dangerous to prey on Spanish shipping American base needed. American colonies also ease English reliance on southern Europe for citrus fruits, silks, and vines. American colonies also ease English reliance on southern Europe for citrus fruits, silks, and vines. 1st patent to settle in America granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert 1st patent to settle in America granted to Sir Humphrey Gilbert half brother to Walter Raleigh, settle anywhere between Florida and Northern Canada settle anywhere between Florida and Northern Canada

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12 Early British Attempts Initially England was not successful Initially England was not successful Martin Frobsier Martin Frobsier Searching for gold and a northwest passage Searching for gold and a northwest passage 3 failed journeys between failed journeys between

13 Humphrey Gilbert Humphrey Gilbert Attempted to settle in Newfoundland – failed, Gilbert dies at sea Attempted to settle in Newfoundland – failed, Gilbert dies at sea John Hawkins and Francis Drake John Hawkins and Francis Drake Successful in the Caribbean Successful in the Caribbean But as pirates not settlers But by 1580 England still had no permanent settlement in Americas But by 1580 England still had no permanent settlement in Americas

14 Roanoke 3 English voyages to settle North America in 1580s. 3 English voyages to settle North America in 1580s. First landed at Roanoke Island, North Carolina on July 13th, 1584, First landed at Roanoke Island, North Carolina on July 13th, 1584, short lived military expedition short lived military expedition found that the land was suitable for both cultivation and defence, returned home to England with 2 local Indians, Manteo & Wanchese. returned home to England with 2 local Indians, Manteo & Wanchese.

15 Roanoke Island

16 1585-6, 2nd English Voyage , 2nd English Voyage Ralph Lane, discovered Chesapeake Bay Ralph Lane, discovered Chesapeake Bay ideal as naval base. ideal as naval base. Noted for the oil paintings of John White and the descriptions of Thomas Hariot. Noted for the oil paintings of John White and the descriptions of Thomas Hariot. But, young male adventurers, with ambitions of land and wealth, not ideal colonists. But, young male adventurers, with ambitions of land and wealth, not ideal colonists.

17 Indian relations deteriorated, food supply from Indians cut off Indian relations deteriorated, food supply from Indians cut off Drake arrived summer 1586, seeking re-supply, ends up providing food for colonists, eventually agrees to return them to England Drake arrived summer 1586, seeking re-supply, ends up providing food for colonists, eventually agrees to return them to England

18 Third voyage 1587: different from previous ones Third voyage 1587: different from previous ones Colonists were farmers not soldiers Colonists were farmers not soldiers came in family groups. came in family groups. Intended to be a permanent settlement, Intended to be a permanent settlement, self-sustaining and self- reproducing. self-sustaining and self- reproducing. John White Governor, returned to England for more supplies John White Governor, returned to England for more supplies Leaving daughter and grand- daughter, Virginia Dare, at Roanoke. Leaving daughter and grand- daughter, Virginia Dare, at Roanoke.

19 Unable to return until 1590 Unable to return until 1590 Due to Spanish Armada When finally arrives, found settlement abandoned When finally arrives, found settlement abandoned colonists never seen again. colonists never seen again.

20 Importance of Roanoke 3 voyages saw evolution of colonising thought 3 voyages saw evolution of colonising thought Roanoke seen as Roanoke seen as A base for privateering, A base for privateering, Then a place where valuable raw materials could be shipped to England, Then a place where valuable raw materials could be shipped to England, Third voyage aimed to settle permanently. Third voyage aimed to settle permanently.

21 Lessons of Roanoke were clear: Lessons of Roanoke were clear: no colony could exist without full support from mother country in terms of men and supplies no colony could exist without full support from mother country in terms of men and supplies for at least the first few years for at least the first few years clear goals needed to give direction and purpose to the colonisation effort clear goals needed to give direction and purpose to the colonisation effort good relations with the Indians were necessary good relations with the Indians were necessary to learn the best survival techniques in the American wilderness. to learn the best survival techniques in the American wilderness.

22 Conclusions Failure of Roanoke great setback for England imperial ambitions. Failure of Roanoke great setback for England imperial ambitions still no permanent English settlement in North America 1600 still no permanent English settlement in North America Yet England had taste for colonization, saw it was practical, possible and still thought it worthwhile & potentially profitable. Yet England had taste for colonization, saw it was practical, possible and still thought it worthwhile & potentially profitable.

23 After Roanoke 20 year wait for colonisation to restart 20 year wait for colonisation to restart Nothing possible until succession decided, too much uncertainty Nothing possible until succession decided, too much uncertainty James I ( ) ends war with Spain James I ( ) ends war with Spain Ends profits from privateering Ends profits from privateering Leads to reconsideration of colonisation Leads to reconsideration of colonisation Importance of getting a charter, royal sanction/support Importance of getting a charter, royal sanction/support sets out claims, regardless of other powers sets out claims, regardless of other powers 1606 charters given to 1606 charters given to Virginia Company of London and Virginia Company of Plymouth to settle between 34 and 45 degrees N latitude, (NC to Maine) Virginia Company of London and Virginia Company of Plymouth to settle between 34 and 45 degrees N latitude, (NC to Maine)

24 Grant to Virginia Co.

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26 The Virginia Company Made up of merchants and gentlemen Made up of merchants and gentlemen charter talks of trade and bringing Christianity to natives. charter talks of trade and bringing Christianity to natives. Needs colonists as Needs colonists as traders traders potential soldiers to defend against Spanish potential soldiers to defend against Spanish Offers free land for settlers Offers free land for settlers 144 young men to go on first voyage on board 3 ships (Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Constant) 144 young men to go on first voyage on board 3 ships (Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Constant) Arrives Chesapeake bay April Arrives Chesapeake bay April Jamestown May 1607 Jamestown May 1607

27 James Fort First Building in America by British

28 VA Problems of Authority Virginia has crisis of authority Virginia has crisis of authority 1 st two governors lose control quickly 1 st two governors lose control quickly only 38 of 144 original migrants still alive in Nov only 38 of 144 original migrants still alive in Nov Solved by John Smith Solved by John Smith elected Gov in Dec 1608 elected Gov in Dec 1608 introduced system of Martial Law introduced system of Martial Law moved colony inland moved colony inland learned survival techniques from Indians learned survival techniques from Indians

29 ‘The Starving Time’ New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. Smith ousted, and returns to England Smith ousted, and returns to England No effective leadership during harsh winter of No effective leadership during harsh winter of lack of planning – no food stockpiled lack of planning – no food stockpiled widespread starvation widespread starvation some cannibalism. some cannibalism.

30 Spring 1610 only 60 survivors Spring 1610 only 60 survivors Decide to return to England Decide to return to England Prevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La Warre Prevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La Warre Laws Divine, Moral and Martial 1611 Laws Divine, Moral and Martial 1611 Response of Virginia Co Response of Virginia Co House of Burgesses House of Burgesses First elected body in North America, July 1619 First elected body in North America, July 1619 Again before Pilgrims Again before Pilgrims

31 Migrants Before 1618 all migrants: Before 1618 all migrants: Male Male Most under 25 Most under 25 Free land offered Free land offered obvious draw to poor, as well as to younger sons of gentry, obvious draw to poor, as well as to younger sons of gentry, i.e. those with little prospect of riches in England i.e. those with little prospect of riches in England Main motivation Main motivation economic, seeking fortune and status economic, seeking fortune and status See Virginia as temporary home See Virginia as temporary home

32 Importance of indentured labour Importance of indentured labour Main source of labour in Virginia before 1680 Main source of labour in Virginia before 1680 People were ‘sold’ for number of years in return for passage. People were ‘sold’ for number of years in return for passage. Possibility of land at end of service. Possibility of land at end of service. Problems of flight Problems of flight seen as form of slavery, seen as form of slavery,

33 Suggestion religion had role in colonisation Suggestion religion had role in colonisation Mentioned in charter Mentioned in charter Used as recruitment tactic Used as recruitment tactic But little attention paid by colonists once there. But little attention paid by colonists once there. Authority derived from either tradition (elders), law (officials) or charisma (dictators) Authority derived from either tradition (elders), law (officials) or charisma (dictators) First church built in 1639 First church built in years after arrival 32 years after arrival Rebuilt in 1907 on original spot Rebuilt in 1907 on original spot

34 Indians Problems with Indians major factor in Virginia development Problems with Indians major factor in Virginia development Powhatan confederacy more powerful than English Powhatan confederacy more powerful than English Numbers approx 10,000 in 1620 Numbers approx 10,000 in English in English in 1624 Initial antagonism – disputes over property Initial antagonism – disputes over property Smith’s role – situation calms in 1610s Smith’s role – situation calms in 1610s Rolfe marries Pocahontas Rolfe marries Pocahontas

35 Powhatan sees English as potential allies vs interior tribes. Powhatan sees English as potential allies vs interior tribes. Irrelevant to broader region of Powhatan Empire Irrelevant to broader region of Powhatan Empire Never imagines they would be threat to him Never imagines they would be threat to him Trades for weapons etc Trades for weapons etc Powhatan dies 1622 Powhatan dies 1622

36 Succeeded by brother Opechancanough Succeeded by brother Opechancanough more hostile to English especially encroachment on lands Role of tobacco in taking Indian lands Role of tobacco in taking Indian lands English authorities unable to prevent it English authorities unable to prevent it

37 Achieves total surprise Achieves total surprise Kills 347 whites Kills 347 whites out of population of out of population of Opechancanough thought English would leave Opechancanough thought English would leave But attack cements negative image of Indians among English But attack cements negative image of Indians among English makes their destruction easier to live with makes their destruction easier to live with

38 Attack on Good Friday (March 22) 1622

39 Conclusions Virginia in 1624 in turmoil Virginia in 1624 in turmoil Politically unstable Politically unstable e.g. Virginia Co loss of charter 1624 e.g. Virginia Co loss of charter 1624 Endured disease, war, death. Endured disease, war, death. Only about 1000 whites in Virginia after 17yrs of colonisation Only about 1000 whites in Virginia after 17yrs of colonisation settlement still in balance settlement still in balance could easily still fail. could easily still fail.

40 Economic Development No economic purpose to early settlement No economic purpose to early settlement 1612 planting of Trinidadian tobacco by John Rolfe planting of Trinidadian tobacco by John Rolfe. Rapid growth of production Rapid growth of production 2,000 lbs in ,000 lbs in m lbs m lbs 1629 by 1620 meant single farmer with no extra labour could make £200/yr profit. by 1620 meant single farmer with no extra labour could make £200/yr profit. Also cause of instability. Also cause of instability.

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42 Larger plantation owners were able to survive through Larger plantation owners were able to survive through Expanding length of indenture Expanding length of indenture Increasing punishments for infractions of contract Increasing punishments for infractions of contract Renting land Renting land Selling other crops and Selling other crops and From money earned from positions in the local government From money earned from positions in the local government Wealthy landowners also closed up Wealthy landowners also closed up

43 Drop in profits led to a situation whereby Drop in profits led to a situation whereby Indentured servants Indentured servants Still the dominant labor force Still the dominant labor force Had little money or opportunity to set themselves up as plantation owners. Had little money or opportunity to set themselves up as plantation owners. Creates a group of landless freemen Creates a group of landless freemen

44 Int o this problematic situation stepped Nathanial Bacon

45 From Virginia we head west to New Mexico and the Pueblo Revolt

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47 Bacon Bacon reputed to have been sent to America by his family in a hope that it would mature him and make him into a Man. reputed to have been sent to America by his family in a hope that it would mature him and make him into a Man. 29 year old Cambridge graduate 29 year old Cambridge graduate From wealthy English family, related by marriage to Virginia governor Sir William Berkley From wealthy English family, related by marriage to Virginia governor Sir William Berkley Everything looked good Everything looked good Bacon given a land grant and a seat on the council. Bacon given a land grant and a seat on the council.

48 Problems mentioned earlier had many people who were outside the wealthy group looking for scapegoats for their situation Problems mentioned earlier had many people who were outside the wealthy group looking for scapegoats for their situation In July 1675 a group was found. In July 1675 a group was found. A group of Doeg Indians raided the plantation of Thomas Mathews. A group of Doeg Indians raided the plantation of Thomas Mathews. Mathews plantation was on the outskirts of the area controlled by the English Mathews plantation was on the outskirts of the area controlled by the English

49 Raid was not a random attack by “wild Indians” Raid was not a random attack by “wild Indians” But an attempt to get paid for goods that Mathews had obtained from the tribe. But an attempt to get paid for goods that Mathews had obtained from the tribe. Several Indians were killed in the attack as was the herdsman of Mathews plantation Several Indians were killed in the attack as was the herdsman of Mathews plantation

50 In revenge the local colonists went after the Doeg Indians and killed ten or more In revenge the local colonists went after the Doeg Indians and killed ten or more However, they also killed a number of Susquehannocks However, they also killed a number of Susquehannocks a tribe that were at peace with and regularly traded with the English. a tribe that were at peace with and regularly traded with the English. Governor Berkeley stepped in and attempted to restore order by ordering an investigation and set up a negation meeting between the English and the Susquehannocks Governor Berkeley stepped in and attempted to restore order by ordering an investigation and set up a negation meeting between the English and the Susquehannocks

51 During this meeting the local militia killed the chiefs sent to negotiate During this meeting the local militia killed the chiefs sent to negotiate The Susquehannocks went on a series of retaliatory attacks along the James River The Susquehannocks went on a series of retaliatory attacks along the James River Bacon’s overseer was killed. Bacon’s overseer was killed. Governor Berkeley planned a series of forts to protect the outlying communities Governor Berkeley planned a series of forts to protect the outlying communities These forts would be paid for out of taxes, These forts would be paid for out of taxes,

52 Outlying planters financially strapped by low Tobacco prices and a stagnant economy preferred the cheaper option Outlying planters financially strapped by low Tobacco prices and a stagnant economy preferred the cheaper option An outright war to kill all Indians and seize their lands. An outright war to kill all Indians and seize their lands. They elected Bacon as their leader They elected Bacon as their leader

53 Led 300 men on an attack on local Indian population on April 1676 – he found only friendly Indians Led 300 men on an attack on local Indian population on April 1676 – he found only friendly Indians Killed them anyway Killed them anyway Bacon’s popularity led legislature Bacon’s popularity led legislature under Berkeley under Berkeley To pass legislation that allowed Indians to be termed: To pass legislation that allowed Indians to be termed: enemies if they left their village without permission from the English enemies if they left their village without permission from the English

54 This allowed their lands and property to be taken. This allowed their lands and property to be taken. How would you react if 1000 angry men – the size of Bacon’s following at this time – came charging towards your village? How would you react if 1000 angry men – the size of Bacon’s following at this time – came charging towards your village? Policy allowed in part as rich landowners thought they would be able to expand their wealth from these acquisitions. Policy allowed in part as rich landowners thought they would be able to expand their wealth from these acquisitions.

55 The governor realizing that this policy was not working ordered the end of hostilities The governor realizing that this policy was not working ordered the end of hostilities Bacon returned at the head of his army and rode into Jamestown. Bacon returned at the head of his army and rode into Jamestown. Chased the governor away and burnt the capital building Chased the governor away and burnt the capital building offered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them. offered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them.

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57 Just as Bacon and the rebellion that bore his name was at the height of its power Just as Bacon and the rebellion that bore his name was at the height of its power Bacon died Bacon died possibly of dysentery possibly of dysentery and the rebellion was over. and the rebellion was over. Berkeley quickly regained control and punished Bacon’s supporters severely. Berkeley quickly regained control and punished Bacon’s supporters severely.

58 Aftermath English government sent to troops to quell uprising English government sent to troops to quell uprising Virginia at peace long before they arrived. Virginia at peace long before they arrived. Berkeley recalled Berkeley recalled New governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hard New governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hard Executed leaders and imprisoned others Executed leaders and imprisoned others Sending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation. Sending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation. The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back

59 Possible Explanations Instability on frontier Instability on frontier mixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflict mixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflict lower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility falling lower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility falling Establishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excluded Establishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excluded Bacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyranny Bacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyranny failure leads to ‘end of American Independence’ failure leads to ‘end of American Independence’

60 Back to the British colonies Not Virginia Not Virginia Not New England Not New England But the richest place in the British Empire But the richest place in the British Empire Barbados Barbados

61 Colonized 1630s Important for two reasons Important for two reasons Wealth Structure Both transferred to mainland Both transferred to mainland

62 Annual sugar exports Annual sugar exports ,000 pounds ,000 pounds 1700 – 50 Million 1700 – 50 Million 1680 planter in Barbados 1680 planter in Barbados 4 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake 4 times richer than tobacco planter in Chesapeake Also held 115 slaves Also held 115 slaves

63 Remember this man? Remember this man? Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Growing Growing Losing attractiveness for Indentured servants Losing attractiveness for Indentured servants But still needed But still needed Cheap labor Cheap labor 1650s Africans 3% of Chesapeake 1650s Africans 3% of Chesapeake Majority population on Barbados Majority population on Barbados

64 1663 John Collerton 1663 John Collerton Barbadian planter Barbadian planter Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake Carolina Carolina 1670 settled in Charles Towne 1670 settled in Charles Towne 1712 split into two 1712 split into two

65 Campbell / Galenson historical debate over social status Campbell / Galenson historical debate over social status Were migrants ‘middling people’ or ‘common sort’ ? Were migrants ‘middling people’ or ‘common sort’ ? Problem source materials Problem source materials mainly from 1650s mainly from 1650s incompleteness of data incompleteness of data Probably reflected English population Probably reflected English population mainly poor (farmers, labourers, artisans), but not the truly destitute mainly poor (farmers, labourers, artisans), but not the truly destitute A few merchants, aristocrats, or wealthy people A few merchants, aristocrats, or wealthy people


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