Presentation on theme: "English Empire Note in 1707 England and Scotland became unified and from then on known as Britain."— Presentation transcript:
1English EmpireNote in 1707 England and Scotland became unified and from then on known as Britain
2Role of EnglandEngland weak, politically and economically in comparison to Spain.Henry VII sponsored John Cabot’s voyages to Canada 1497lost interest when NW passage not discovered.Lack of political will, and military capacity to challenge Spain before later 16thC
3IrelandIreland conquered by Normans, but gradually England lost control.Tudors show renewed interest.Military expeditions during Elizabethan Ageled by soldiers & adventurers.
4Followed up by colonizers Seeking land holdings and use of Gaelic Irish as serfs,frequent atrocities and brutality towards IrishAbout 200,000 migrants from GB to Ireland
5Ireland as a blueprint Finance Promotional literature Attitudes towards native peoplesIndividuals involvede.g.Richard Grenville,Humphrey Gilbert,Walter Raleigh.
6Video Questions 11. Shift in seventeenth century Virginia away from indentured servant labor was accompanied byincreasing tobacco production.slowing rates of population growth.accelerating movement toward democracy.using race as a dividing line among the poor.
7Video Questions 22. Professor Karen Kupperman refers to property ownership in colonial Virginia as a "double-edged sword" because itapplied to both land and labor.guaranteed both whites and blacks the right to vote.Tended to destroy a sense of community.Gave women a cause to complain about.
8English Imperial Ambitions Motivation:Envy of Spanish Colonial treasureWealth helped Spain become most powerful nation;English policy:Break the Iberian monopoly on Americafear that American wealth, after Henry VIII's split with Rome (1534), could be used against them.English sanctioned privateering operations.Captured Spanish treasure ships bringing gold & silver from New World.
9By 1580 increasingly dangerous to prey on Spanish shipping American base needed.American colonies also ease English reliance on southern Europe for citrus fruits, silks, and vines.1st patent to settle in America granted to Sir Humphrey Gilberthalf brother to Walter Raleigh,settle anywhere between Florida and Northern Canada
11Early British Attempts Initially England was not successfulMartin FrobsierSearching for gold and a northwest passage3 failed journeys between
12John Hawkins and Francis Drake Humphrey GilbertAttempted to settle in Newfoundland – failed, Gilbert dies at seaJohn Hawkins and Francis DrakeSuccessful in the CaribbeanBut as pirates not settlersBut by 1580 England still had no permanent settlement in Americas
13Roanoke 3 English voyages to settle North America in 1580s. First landed at Roanoke Island, North Carolina on July 13th, 1584,short lived military expeditionfound that the land was suitable for both cultivation and defence,returned home to England with 2 local Indians, Manteo & Wanchese.
15Ralph Lane, discovered Chesapeake Bay 1585-6, 2nd English VoyageRalph Lane, discovered Chesapeake Bayideal as naval base.Noted for the oil paintings of John White and the descriptions of Thomas Hariot.But, young male adventurers, with ambitions of land and wealth, not ideal colonists.
16Indian relations deteriorated, food supply from Indians cut off Drake arrived summer 1586, seeking re-supply, ends up providing food for colonists, eventually agrees to return them to England
17Third voyage 1587: different from previous ones Colonists were farmers not soldierscame in family groups.Intended to be a permanent settlement,self-sustaining and self-reproducing.John White Governor, returned to England for more suppliesLeaving daughter and grand-daughter, Virginia Dare, at Roanoke.
18When finally arrives, found settlement abandoned Unable to return until 1590Due to Spanish ArmadaWhen finally arrives, found settlement abandonedcolonists never seen again.
19Importance of Roanoke 3 voyages saw evolution of colonising thought Roanoke seen asA base for privateering,Then a place where valuable raw materials could be shipped to England,Third voyage aimed to settle permanently.
20Lessons of Roanoke were clear: no colony could exist without full support from mother country in terms of men and suppliesfor at least the first few yearsclear goals needed to give direction and purpose to the colonisation effortgood relations with the Indians were necessaryto learn the best survival techniques in the American wilderness.
21ConclusionsFailure of Roanoke great setback for England imperial ambitions.1600 still no permanent English settlement in North AmericaYet England had taste for colonization, saw it was practical, possible and still thought it worthwhile & potentially profitable.
22After Roanoke 20 year wait for colonisation to restart Nothing possible until succession decided, too much uncertaintyJames I ( ) ends war with Spain 1604.Ends profits from privateeringLeads to reconsideration of colonisationImportance of getting a charter, royal sanction/supportsets out claims, regardless of other powers1606 charters given toVirginia Company of London and Virginia Company of Plymouth to settle between 34 and 45 degrees N latitude, (NC to Maine)
25The Virginia Company Made up of merchants and gentlemen charter talks of trade and bringing Christianity to natives.Needs colonists astraderspotential soldiers to defend against SpanishOffers free land for settlers144 young men to go on first voyage on board 3 ships (Godspeed, Discovery and Susan Constant)Arrives Chesapeake bay AprilJamestown May 1607
27VA Problems of Authority Virginia has crisis of authority1st two governors lose control quicklyonly 38 of 144 original migrants still alive in Nov 1607.Solved by John Smithelected Gov in Dec 1608introduced system of Martial Lawmoved colony inlandlearned survival techniques from Indians
28New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers. ‘The Starving Time’New fleet arrives June 1609, brings 900 new settlers.Smith ousted, and returns to EnglandNo effective leadership during harsh winter oflack of planning – no food stockpiledwidespread starvationsome cannibalism.
29Decide to return to England Spring 1610 only 60 survivorsDecide to return to EnglandPrevented by arrival of new Governor Lord De La WarreLaws Divine, Moral and Martial 1611Response of Virginia CoHouse of BurgessesFirst elected body in North America, July 1619Again before Pilgrims
30Migrants Before 1618 all migrants: Male Most under 25 Free land offeredobvious draw to poor, as well as to younger sons of gentry,i.e. those with little prospect of riches in EnglandMain motivationeconomic, seeking fortune and statusSee Virginia as temporary home
31Importance of indentured labour Main source of labour in Virginia before 1680People were ‘sold’ for number of years in return for passage.Possibility of land at end of service.Problems of flightseen as form of slavery,
32Suggestion religion had role in colonisation Mentioned in charterUsed as recruitment tacticBut little attention paid by colonists once there.Authority derived from either tradition (elders), law (officials) or charisma (dictators)First church built in 163932 years after arrivalRebuilt in 1907 on original spot
33Indians Problems with Indians major factor in Virginia development Powhatan confederacy more powerful than EnglishNumbers approx 10,000 in 16201000 English in 1624Initial antagonism – disputes over propertySmith’s role – situation calms in 1610sRolfe marries Pocahontas
34Powhatan sees English as potential allies vs interior tribes. Irrelevant to broader region of Powhatan EmpireNever imagines they would be threat to himTrades for weapons etcPowhatan dies 1622
35Succeeded by brother Opechancanough more hostile to Englishespecially encroachment on landsRole of tobacco in taking Indian landsEnglish authorities unable to prevent it
36Achieves total surprise Kills 347 whitesout of population of 1200.Opechancanough thought English would leaveBut attack cements negative image of Indians among Englishmakes their destruction easier to live with
38Conclusions Virginia in 1624 in turmoil Politically unstable e.g. Virginia Co loss of charter 1624Endured disease, war, death.Only about 1000 whites in Virginia after 17yrs of colonisationsettlement still in balancecould easily still fail.
39Economic Development No economic purpose to early settlement 1612 planting of Trinidadian tobacco by John Rolfe.Rapid growth of production2,000 lbs in 16151.5m lbs 1629by 1620 meant single farmer with no extra labour could make £200/yr profit.Also cause of instability.
41Larger plantation owners were able to survive through Expanding length of indentureIncreasing punishments for infractions of contractRenting landSelling other crops andFrom money earned from positions in the local governmentWealthy landowners also closed up
42Drop in profits led to a situation whereby Indentured servants Still the dominant labor forceHad little money or opportunity to set themselves up as plantation owners.Creates a group of landless freemen
43Into this problematic situation stepped Nathanial Bacon
44From Virginia we head west to New Mexico and the Pueblo Revolt
4629 year old Cambridge graduate Baconreputed to have been sent to America by his family in a hope that it would mature him and make him into a Man.29 year old Cambridge graduateFrom wealthy English family, related by marriage to Virginia governor Sir William BerkleyEverything looked goodBacon given a land grant and a seat on the council.
47Problems mentioned earlier had many people who were outside the wealthy group looking for scapegoats for their situationIn July 1675 a group was found.A group of Doeg Indians raided the plantation of Thomas Mathews.Mathews plantation was on the outskirts of the area controlled by the English
48Raid was not a random attack by “wild Indians” But an attempt to get paid for goods that Mathews had obtained from the tribe.Several Indians were killed in the attack as was the herdsman of Mathews plantation
49However, they also killed a number of Susquehannocks In revenge the local colonists went after the Doeg Indians and killed ten or moreHowever, they also killed a number of Susquehannocksa tribe that were at peace with and regularly traded with the English.Governor Berkeley stepped in and attempted to restore order by ordering an investigation and set up a negation meeting between the English and the Susquehannocks
50During this meeting the local militia killed the chiefs sent to negotiate The Susquehannocks went on a series of retaliatory attacks along the James RiverBacon’s overseer was killed.Governor Berkeley planned a series of forts to protect the outlying communitiesThese forts would be paid for out of taxes,
51Outlying planters financially strapped by low Tobacco prices and a stagnant economy preferred the cheaper optionAn outright war to kill all Indians and seize their lands.They elected Bacon as their leader
52Bacon’s popularity led legislature Led 300 men on an attack on local Indian population on April 1676 – he found only friendly IndiansKilled them anywayBacon’s popularity led legislatureunder BerkeleyTo pass legislation that allowed Indians to be termed:enemies if they left their village without permission from the English
53This allowed their lands and property to be taken. How would you react if 1000 angry men – the size of Bacon’s following at this time – came charging towards your village?Policy allowed in part as rich landowners thought they would be able to expand their wealth from these acquisitions.
54The governor realizing that this policy was not working ordered the end of hostilities Bacon returned at the head of his army and rode into Jamestown.Chased the governor away and burnt the capital buildingoffered freedom to any of Berkeley’s supporters, servants or slaves who joined them.
56and the rebellion was over. Just as Bacon and the rebellion that bore his name was at the height of its powerBacon diedpossibly of dysenteryand the rebellion was over.Berkeley quickly regained control and punished Bacon’s supporters severely.
57Aftermath English government sent to troops to quell uprising Virginia at peace long before they arrived.Berkeley recalledNew governor implemented some reforms and hit rebels hardExecuted leaders and imprisoned othersSending a message that rebellion was never justified, no matter what the provocation.The long term effect for Indians was that the frontier was again pushed back
58Possible Explanations Instability on frontiermixing of freed servants, blacks, Indians; taxes high, discontent over spending priorities, so rebellion a symbol of class conflictlower death rates and immigration of royalists meant social mobility fallingEstablishing First Families of Virginia – even Bacon excludedBacon as popular democratic hero struggling vs tyrannyfailure leads to ‘end of American Independence’
59Back to the British colonies Not VirginiaNot New EnglandBut the richest place in the British EmpireBarbados
60Important for two reasons BarbadosColonized 1630sImportant for two reasonsWealthStructureBoth transferred to mainland
61Annual sugar exports,000 pounds1700 – 50 Million1680 planter in Barbados4 times richer than tobacco planter in ChesapeakeAlso held 115 slaves
62Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was: Remember this man?Virginia and wider Chesapeake region was:GrowingLosing attractiveness for Indentured servantsBut still neededCheap labor1650s Africans 3% of ChesapeakeMajority population on Barbados
63Obtained charter to create colony south of Chesapeake 1663 John CollertonBarbadian planterObtained charter to create colony south of ChesapeakeCarolina1670 settled in Charles Towne1712 split into two
64Campbell / Galenson historical debate over social status Were migrants ‘middling people’ or ‘common sort’ ?Problem source materialsmainly from 1650sincompleteness of dataProbably reflected English populationmainly poor (farmers, labourers, artisans), but not the truly destituteA few merchants, aristocrats, or wealthy people