Presentation on theme: "MIKAYLA CASTRO PER. 6 Post Civil War: Reconstruction Era."— Presentation transcript:
MIKAYLA CASTRO PER. 6 Post Civil War: Reconstruction Era
Sectional Issues IssueWestNorthSouth Henry Clay (KY)Daniel Webster (MA)John C. Calhoun (SC) TariffsFought for an increase in tariffs because he believed it would improve the economy. Claimed that the tariffs did not intend to foster industry, but raise revenue; against the “true spirit of the Constitution” Opposed tariffs because he believed they favored the North. National BankPlanned to resurrect the national bank as part of his American System. In favor of the 2 nd bank of the United States along with the rest of the Whig Party. Supported the recharter of the national bank. Native Americans and removal Saw the natives as uncivilized; supported Indian Removal. Wanted natives to conform to “white ways” Wanted natives removed. SlaveryAlthough Clay owned slaves himself, he favored the emancipation of slaves and the resettlement into Africa. Opposed slaveryBelieved that slavery was a source of great wealth and that it was permitted under the Constitution. States’ rightsIndividualistUnionSupported states rights
Terms Carpetbaggers: southern term for northerners who moved south during the Reconstruction Era. A “carpetbag” was a type of luggage that was made from used carpet. Jim Crow Laws ( ): racial segregation laws that segregated schools, public restrooms, drinking fountains, and even the US military. Sharecropping: landowner rents his land to a tenant and in return receives a portion of the crops produced on the land. Beneficial to poor farmers because it provided them with food and shelter during Reconstruction. Nadir of American Race Relations: peak of racism after the war; lynching, legal discrimination, white supremacy increase. 14 th Amendment: state and federal citizenship for all, no state could take away the “privileges and immunities” of citizens, due process of law, equal protection. Reservation Systems: natives were confined to a single reservation and were given food, goods, etc. They were promised safety from white settlers. Western expansion: settlers were encouraged to move west after the civil war, and were persuaded with the Homestead Act that gave 160 acres of land to any citizen who could afford the $10 registration fee.
Terms (cont.) Civil Rights Act of 1866: Protected the civil rights of African-Americans after the war. Gave all citizens the same rights that white men had, regardless of “race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.” Black Codes: Laws passed by confederate states that restricted free blacks after the abolition of slavery. The purpose of these laws were to maintain white supremacy. 13 th Amendment (1865): abolished slavery and involuntary servitude. 15 th Amendment (1870): Gave all citizens the right to vote regardless of “race or color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude.” Freedman’s Bureau ( ): Proposed by Abraham Lincoln, the Freedman’s Bureau was a US agency that was intended to aid freed blacks. The bureau encouraged African- Americans to get jobs and to work together with whites as employers and employees rather than masters and slaves.
Immigration Nativism: the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners. Nativists feared that an overwhelming amount of immigrants would cost them their jobs, and bring a Roman Catholic influence to America. The Nativists made up the Know-Nothing Party, that attempted to reduce and restrict rights for immigrants. Chinese Exclusion Act (May 6 th, 1882): Signed by President Chester A. Arthur, prohibited all immigration of Chinese laborers. The California Gold Rush in 1849 led many Chinese immigrants to settle in America. This was not problematic for native-born Americans until there was a shortage in gold, and acquiring it became very competitive. Repealed by the Magnuson Act. Gentleman’s Agreement (1907): Japan agreed to discontinue immigration to America. Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japanese men already living in the US to join them. This was intended to reduce the tension between the two powerful nations. The agreement was an effect of the California Board of Education requiring Japanese students to attend their own, separate schools. Settlement Houses: low-income houses or neighborhoods for immigrants. Provided services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to the residents in order to improve their lives and gave them the skills needed to get a job in America.
Immigration (cont.) Angel Island: In hopes of getting Chinese settlers in California deported, Chinese immigrants were interrogated and asked questions about their villages and families that would be difficult to answer correctly. “Many Chinese immigrants were forced to prove they had a husband or father who was a U. S. citizen or be deported.” In 1940, a fire destroyed the Angel Island administration building. Ellis Island ( ): The nation’s busiest immigration inspection station for Europeans. Located in Jersey City and New York City. Immigrants were required to pass various medical tests and pay entry before entering the US.
Industrialization Panic of 1873: Caused by over expansion and industrialization. People took out loans that they could not pay back. Stock market was closed for 10 business days. “This was the longest and most severe depression the country had experienced, with over 15,000 businesses filing bankruptcy, widespread unemployment, and a slowdown in railroad and factory building.” – (http://www.apstudynotes.org)http://www.apstudynotes.org Vertical Integration: A company that controls the entire process, including manufacturing and marketing. Pioneered by Andrew Carnegie, who used this strategy to monopolize the steel industry. Hostile Takeover: One company buys another against their will by going directly to the company's shareholders or fighting to replace management in order to get the acquisition approved. Sherman Anti-Trust Act: Named after Sen. John Sherman of Ohio. A trust is an arrangement in which stockholders transfer their shares to a group of trustees. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act prohibited trusts and regulated interstate commerce. “…declared illegal every contract, combination (in the form of trust or otherwise), or conspiracy in restraint of interstate and foreign trade.” (http://www.infoplease.com/”http://www.infoplease.com/ Monopoly: an exclusive control of a service, product or commodity. This allows the company that owns it to manipulate prices.
Industrialization (cont.) Bessemer Process: A process named after Henry Bessemer, that coverted iron into steel, which was more versatile. This made processing large quantities of steel possible. Homestead Strike of 1892: Occurred in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Strike at Carnegie’s steel plant over pay cuts. 300 armed Pinkerton detectives were summoned to stop the strikers.
Populism Party Election of 1894: Cross of Gold: Speech given by William Jennings Bryan against the gold standard, which was the Republican proposal to eliminate silver coinage. People must not be “crucified on a cross of gold.” Bryan believed that the gold standard was a burden and supported bimetallism. William Jennings Bryan: Candidate for the president for the Democratic Party (three times), but never won. Most popular populist in American history. Became Woodrow Wilson’s Secretary of State ( ).
Political Machines Labor Unions: Supported an eight-hour work day, arbitration of industrial disputes, and the printing of paper money to increase supply of currency. Group of laborers, farmers, women and blacks. Excluded Chinese. Lasted about six years. Graft: Taking advantage of a official position to gain property or money illegally. Thomas Nast: Father of American political cartooning. Propaganda; artwork based on political corruption. Boss Tweed: New York City politician, stole over 200 million dollars from the city in the 6 years that he was a political boss. Indicted in 1871 and sentenced to jail. Tweed Ring: group of people who supported Boss Tweed.
Muchrackers Upton Sinclair: Author of “The Jungle,” which was a gruesome novel that revealed the truth of the meat packing industry in Chicago. His novel led to the Meat Inspection Act, which required cleanliness of meat packers and a program for meat inspection. Hearst and Pulitzer: Creators of Yellow Journalism. Manipulated people to believe that the problems in Cuba prior to the Spanish-American War were worse than they actually were. Yellow Journalism: Journalism that exaggerates, exploits and distorts the truth to create an interesting story for the reader. Pendelton Civil Service Act: federal employees were hired based on physical exams, which allowed jobs to be given to people based on ability rather than social class or wealth.
Women’s Suffrage & Urbanization 19 th Amendment: Gave women the right to vote. Ratified on August 18 th, Susan B Anthony: Drafted the 19 th amendment. Key leader of the women’s suffrage movement, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association. Hull House, Chicago: one of the first settlement houses in the United States and eventually became the largest. Its main goal was to provide social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood. Founded by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr. Jacob Riis: Photographer and author; exposed the conditions of poor tenements in New York City through his novel, “How the Other Half Lives.” Tenement Houses: inhabited primarily by immigrants, tenements were poorly built, run down housing units that were often extremely overcrowded.