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An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit Ten. Questions for General Understanding 1.What do you know about the narrator? 2.What type of writing is the.

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Presentation on theme: "An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit Ten. Questions for General Understanding 1.What do you know about the narrator? 2.What type of writing is the."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Integrated English Course Book 4 Unit Ten

2 Questions for General Understanding 1.What do you know about the narrator? 2.What type of writing is the text? 3.What’s the author’s purpose of writing? 4.How many parts can the text be divided into? (p. 155)

3 1. About the narrator James Earl Jones

4 James Earl Jones Turned Fear Into Fame Fear -- Feel It and Keep Moving Many of us allow our fear to stop us in our tracks. All it takes is a less than encouraging word, a negative facial expression, or a less than positive opinion, and we give up before we even get started. We’re afraid of: the word “no” because it means failure the word “yes” because it means responsibility the disapproving look because it means rejection the whispers and grins because they mean judgment, and the absence of support because it means abandonment Let’s look at these five catalysts ( 催化剂 ) to failure and how they can be overcome.

5 Abandonment Little James Earl was scared. His father had left the family to become a prize fighter and actor. His mother had left to earn money as a tailor. The Great Depression had stolen his family and he was about to lose the only life he had ever known. His grandparents had adopted him and now they were on their way to Michigan.

6 Rejection Though his life in Mississippi had been one of abandonment, it was all the 5-year-old boy had known. The move to Michigan so traumatized him he developed a stutter. His first day of school was a disaster. His stuttering made his classmates laugh at him. It was the final straw for a frightened little boy. He closed his mouth and simply quit talking… for eight years! James Earl was completely mute – with the exception of conversations he had with himself when he was all alone. He found solace in the written word – creating poetry to release the raging in his soul.

7 Judgment As is often the case, one person who saw beyond his limitations released James Earl from his self- imposed prison. That one person was an English teacher who saw talent in the silent 13-year-old. She pushed him beyond his fear by forcing him into public speaking – insisting he recite a poem in front of the class every day. Can’t you imagine his terror when he first stood in front of his classmates? What made him do it? Was it only the teacher’s insistence? No. It was a deep desire to break free from his prison and speak all the things that had sat silently in his heart during all those years. He chose to feel the fear – and then do it anyway!

8 Failure He stuttered. He stammered. He endured the sympathetic and scornful looks of fellow students. He endured the laughing. But he did it. He faced the fear and forced himself to speak. Day after day. Week after week. He hung onto the encouragement of the teacher who believed in him. And it worked. His stuttering became less. He learned to control his voice.

9 Responsibility His victories made him look for more challenges. James Earl began to take acting lessons. His early lessons in perseverance gave him the courage to push beyond the prejudices against black actors. He chose to take as many different types of roles as he could – stretching his limitations and refusing to be pigeon-holed with any stereotypes.

10 Beyond the Fear James Earl Jones is now known for his deep authoritative voice. Perhaps you know him as the voice of Star War’s Darth Vader or as Mufasa in the Lion King. You see him almost daily on commercials. He has starred on Broadway and been in many movies. He has been laden with Tony, Emmy and Obie Awards. People look at him today and see a confident actor with a deep, resonant voice. The next time you see him, look deeper... James Earl Jones’ great secret to success is that he chose to push beyond his fears. He chose to change the reality of a young boy who had lived in silence for eight years. He chose to face ridicule and scorn in order to be free. I can only imagine how many years passed before he could open his mouth without being afraid of what would come out.

11 So many of us let our fears stop us. We’re afraid of how we will appear. We’re afraid of what people will think. We’re afraid we’ll fail. And so... we do nothing. We exchange fear for regret. Fear will pass. Fear can be conquered. Fear will fade away in the face of determined action. Regret – well, you'll live with that for the rest of your life. What are you afraid of ? Name the fear. Choose to face it. And take action to conquer it today! You, too, can live a life of success by feeling the fear and moving beyond it. About the Author... The story for this article was taken from Ginny Dye’s Daily Secrets For Success. Let these daily motivational stories stir your heart, fuel your desire and propel you into action. Subscribe at Source:

12 2. Type of writing Narrative 3. Purpose of writing (154) To reveal how the narrator overcame his stuttering and became a good speaker with the help of Prof. Crouch.

13 4. Text structure Part I (Paragraph 1-2) Beginning -- presents a striking contrast between his successful career as an actor and television announcer and his severe stutter in his early childhood. Part II (Paragraphs 3-22) Development -- the author recollects how his high school teacher, Professor Crouch, helped him to overcome his stutter and find his voice. Part III (Paragraphs 23-29) Ending -- the author tells the reader how his voice was found with the help of Prof. Crouch who turned a new leaf to his life and brought him great successes in memorable roles on stage, in films, and on television, and how grateful he is to his teacher, “the father of my resurrected voice”.

14 Part I (Paragraph 1-2) In this part, the writer describes how successful his career is at present and what an important role his voice plays in his career. It forms a sharp contrast with the fact that he suffered from a stuttering problem as a child.

15 voice be in (good) voice 嗓子好 find one's voice ( 吓得或羞得说不出话之后 ) 恢复说话 give one's voice for 赞成 give voice to 说出, 表达, 吐露 have a [no] voice in sth. 对某事有 [ 无 ] 发言权 in a hushed voice 低声 ( 私语 ) 地 in bad [out of] voice 嗓子不好 in my voice 以我的名义 ( 莎士比亚语 ) lift up one's voice 大声疾呼, 叫嚷

16 lose one's voice 嗓子哑了 lower one's voice 低声说话, 压低嗓子 raise one's voice against sth. 为抗议某事而大声疾呼 recover one's voice 开口说起话来 round voice 宏亮而柔和的嗓音 speak under one's voice 低声说 strain one's voice 喊坏嗓子 ; 扯起嗓子喊 the public voice 舆论 the still small voice 良心的呼声 The voice of one man is the voice of no one. [ 谚 ] 一个人的意见不起作用。 with one voice 异口同声地 ; 一致地

17 Language work 1. trilogy: -- a series of three books, plays, operas, etc. that have the same subject or the same character, but are each complete works in themselves He is best known for his trilogy on working-class life.

18 Star Wars is an epic ( 史诗的 ) space opera franchise( 特权, 经营权 ) initially conceived by George Lucas. The first film in the franchise was simply titled Star Wars, but later had the subtitle Episode IV: A New Hope added to distinguish it from its sequels and prequels( 介绍性的片集 ). Star Wars was released on May 25, 1977 by 20th Century Fox, and became a worldwide pop culture ( 通俗文化 ) phenomenon, spawning two immediate sequels released in three-year intervals. Sixteen years after the release of the trilogy's final film, the first in a new prequel trilogy of films was released, again released in three-year intervals, with the final film released on May 19, 2005. The original trilogy comprised of Star Wars, released on May 25, 1977, The Empire Strikes Back (帝国反击战), released on May 21, 1980, and Return of the Jedi (绝地武士归来 / 绝 地大反攻), released on May 25, 1983.

19 2. the voice-over announcer: -- an announcer who makes a commentary ( 解说词 ) or gives an explanation which is heard as part of a film or television program, but he himself is not actually seen.

20 Questions for discussion Q: Did you expect a person as described in Paragraph 1 could have suffered from stutter? A: It is really out of anyone’s expectation that a person with the experience of stuttering may have such a great achievement, especially in a career dependent primarily upon voice and fluency.

21 Part II (Paragraphs 3-22) Development: How I found my voice It mainly describes the writer’s stuttering problem when he was a child and the process of how Prof. Crouch helped the boy tackle the problem by way of the forced public speaking. As a result, his effort woke up the boy’s courage to overcome his humiliation, and the boy’s stutter disappeared.

22 Language work 3. I always sat down, my face burning with shame. -- I always sat down, and blushed because I felt ashamed. More examples of absolute structure: A number of officials followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on. (infinitive clause) His voice drowned by the noise, the speaker stopped in the middle of his lecture. (-ed participle clause) He went off, gun in hand, (prepositional phrase) The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside. (adjective phrase)

23 Paul was lying on the lawn, his hands __ under his head. A. were crossing B. were crossed C. crossing D. crossed ANSWER: D

24 The boys leaned against the willow tree, fishing poles _____ on sticks, eyes ____ at the bobs floating on the ripples. A. resting… gazing B. resting… gazed C. rested… gazing D. rested… gazed ANSWER: A

25 4. It was traumatic moving from the warm, easy ways of catfish country to the harsh climate of the north, where people seemed so different. We moved from the familiar and pleasant country to the north where I felt cold both in body and in heart. That was really an upsetting experience in my life.

26 fervent adj showing warmth and sincerity of feeling; enthusiastic; passionate 热诚的 ; 热情的 ; 热烈的 ; 强烈的 a fervent farewell speech 热情的告别演说 fervent love, hatred, etc 强烈的爱﹑ 恨等 a fervent admirer 痴心的倾慕者 He's a fervent believer in free speech. 他是言论自由的强烈信仰者。 She has a fervent desire to win. 她有着强烈的获胜欲望。

27 5. in a nondenominational fellowship: -- in a close relationship without caring about the different religions nondenominational -- not restricted to a particular religious denomination adj. 不限于一宗教宗派的, 与宗教宗派无关的

28 6. Granddad’s Irish heritage came out in his love for language; during the week he used “every­day talk”, but on Sunday he spoke only the finest English.: -- Granddad had a love for language, which might have been inherited from his Irish ancestors. In weekdays, he used plain English, but when in church on Sunday, he spoke perfectly standard English.

29 come out 1. 出现 The moon came out from behind the clouds. 月亮从云后露出脸来。 2. 出版 When will his new novel come out? 他新创作的小说什么时候出版 ? 3. 结果是 The party came out all right. 晚会开得很好。 4. 传出 When the news came out, everyone was shocked. 消息传来, 人人都感到震惊。 5. 总计 The total came out at 1010. 总数算出来为一千零十。

30 7. come close to: -- become almost the same as 8. assess: -- consider or judge the quality or worth of something They say they can assess intelligence from these tests. 9. round up: 集中,赶拢 -- gather together animals or people, often when they do not want to be gathered together We rounded up some friends to play poker and drink beer. 我们聚集了一些朋友来喝啤酒、打扑克牌。

31 10. vent: give free expression to (idm 习语 ) give (full) vent to sth: express sth freely (任 意地)表达某事 He gave vent to his feelings in an impassioned speech. 他慷慨陈词抒发感情. vent sth (on sb): find or provide an outlet for (an emotion) 发泄(情感) He vented his anger on his long-suffering wife. 他拿一贯受气的 妻子出气. (idm 习语 ) grit one's teeth (a) keep one's jaws tight together 咬紧牙关 (b) (fig 比喻 ) summon up one's courage and determination 鼓起勇气下定决心 When things get difficult, you just have to grit your teeth and persevere. 遇到困难只需咬紧牙关坚持下去.

32 11. That awful feeling of my voice being trapped got worse as 1 grew older.: -- As I grew older, I became more self- conscious of my stuttering. 12. retreat: -- a quiet or private place that one goes to in order to rest or concentrate on a particular problem or task

33 Mennonite 门诺宗信徒;门诺派教徒 ['menənait] 以门诺 · 西门( Menno Simons )的名字命名的新教教会 信徒。起源可追溯到 1525 年成立的瑞士兄弟会,他们 是一些反对婴儿受洗并强调政教分离的不从国教派。 因受迫害而散居欧洲各地,先是在荷兰与波兰北部找 到了政治自由,再从那些地区迁往乌克兰与俄罗斯。 1663 年他们首次移民北美洲。 19 世纪 70 年代,许多俄 罗斯门诺宗信徒因丧失兵役豁免权而移民美国中西部 和加拿大。如今,在全世界许多地方都能找到门诺宗 信徒,尤其是南、北美洲。他们的信条强调《圣经》 的权威、早期教会的典范和洗礼对承认信仰的重要性 。他们崇尚简朴的生活,许多人拒绝宣誓及服兵役。

34 Chaucer Chaucer, Geoffrey (?1340-1400) an English writer who wrote the long poem The Canterbury Tales, one of the most important works in English literature. It is about a group of pilgrims ( 朝 圣者 ) travelling to Canterbury, who tell each other stories.

35 The beginning of The Knight's Tale from the Ellesmere manuscript. Whilom, as olde stories tellen us, Ther was a duc that highte Theseus; Of Atthenes he was lord and governour, And in his tyme swich a conquerour, That gretter was ther noon under the sonne. Ful many a riche contree hadde he wonne, What with his wysdom and his chivalrie; He conquered al the regne of Femenye, That whilom was ycleped Scithia, And weddede the queene Ypolita, And broghte hir hoom with hym in his contree, With muchel glorie and greet solempnytee, And eek hir yonge suster Emelye. And thus with victorie and with melodyeduchighteswichnoon sonne FulcontreechivalrieregneFemenyewhilomyclepedweddedehoom contreemuchelsolempnyteeeeksuster

36 (8) he couldn’t stand not being a part of our school. Paraphrase:... he wanted very much to be a teacher of our school. Why?

37 Robert Frost (1874-1963) American poet, one of the finest of rural New England's 20th century pastoral poets. Frost published his first books in Great Britain in the 1910s, but he soon became in his own country the most read and constantly anthologized poet, whose work was made familiar in classrooms and lecture platforms. Frost was awarded the Pulitzer Prize four times. Nature and Frost's rural surroundings were for him a source for insights "from delight to wisdom", or as he also said: "Literature begins with geography." FIRE AND ICE Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice.

38 I let my neighbour know beyond the hill; And on a day we meet to walk the line And set the wall between us once again. We keep the wall between us as we go. To each the boulders that have fallen to each. And some are loaves and some so nearly balls We have to use a spell to make them balance: “Stay where you are until our backs are turned!” We wear our fingers rough with handling them. Oh, just another kind of out-door game, One on a side. It comes to little more: There where it is we do not need the wall: He is all pine and I am apple orchard. My apple trees will never get across And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him. He only says, “Good fences make good neighbours.” 我通知了住在山那边的邻居; 有一天我们约好,巡视地界一番, 在我们两家之间再把墙重新砌起。 我们走的时候,中间隔著一沿墙。 落在两边的石块,由各自去料理。 有些是长块的,有些几乎圆得像球, 需要一点魔术才能把它们放稳当: 「给我好好待著,等我们转过身再滚落!」 我们搬弄石头,把手指都磨粗了。 啊!这不过又是一种户外游戏, 一个人站在一边。此外没有多少用处: 在墙那地方,我们根本不需要墙: 他那边全是松树,我这边则是苹果园。 我的苹果树永远也不会踱过去, 吃掉他松树下的毬果。我对他说。 他只是说:「好篱笆造出好邻居。」

39 13. savor: -- enjoy and appreciate something like food, or drink, or an experience, as much as one can 加调味品于, 尝到或闻到, 尽情享受 I savored every mouthful of breakfast, reluctant to let it end. He savored his success. 他回味自己的成就。 Life seems to have lost most of its savor for him. 对他来说,生活似乎已失去了一切乐趣。 (10) we found a kinship Paraphrase: we found a strong connection between us.

40 press press sb (for sth): try repeatedly to persuade sb (to do sth) 一再劝说某人(做某事) ; 催促 ; 敦促 : The bank is pressing us for repayment of the loan. 银行催我们偿还贷款. They are pressing us to make a quick decision. 他们正在敦促我们迅速作出决定.

41 turn away She turn away in horror at the sight of so much blood. 她一看见这么多血就立刻吓得转过脸去。 Some refugees were turned away. There were too many hungry mouths to feed already. 一些难民们被打发走了,因为需要提供食物的 饥民太多了。

42 14. labor: -- work with difficulty, for example because one is not strong enough or clever enough He was laboring under the strain of a worsening political crisis. His classmates were laboring with elementary algebra. 15.... I started, anger flooding me... : --... I started, overwhelmed with anger...

43 breathless 1. having difficulty in breathing 气喘吁吁的, 呼吸困难的 The climb made him breathless. 2. ( 因兴奋、恐惧等 ) 呼吸急促的 ; 屏息的 The children were breathless as they watched the tightrope act. 孩子们在看走绳索表演时呼吸都屏住了。 3. 扣人心弦的, 令人喘不过气的 breathless tension 令人透不过气来的紧张 4. 呼吸停止的 ; 死的 The body lay breathless on the bed: there was no sign of life. 躺在床上的人停止了呼吸, 已经死了。 5. 无风而沉闷的 ; 闷气的 unpleasantly hot the breathless air of a hot summer day 炎热的夏日那令人窒息的空 气 at (a) breathless pace/speed: extremely fast

44 Cf. out of breath 喘不过气来,上气不接下气 地 I‘m out of breath after running up the stairs. 奔上楼 梯我气喘吁吁。 Cf. gasp: take one or more quick deep breaths with open mouth ( 大口 ) 喘气 gasp like a fish out of water 像鱼离开水似的大口 喘气 The exhausted runner was gasping for air/breath. 那人跑得疲惫已极, 上气不接下气.

45 16. I stood amazed and floated back to my desk in a daze, amid wild applause.: -- I stood there, amazed at my performance, then not knowing how, I drifted back to my seat, and my classmates gave me a big applause. (idm 习语 ) in a daze: in a confused state 处於茫 然状态 : I've been in a complete daze since hearing the sad news. 我听到那坏消息, 一直全然不知所措. amid, also amidst prep (dated or fml 旧或文 ) in the middle of (sth); among 在... 当中 ; 在... 中 : Amid all the rush and confusion she forgot to say goodbye. 她在忙乱中忘记了告辞.

46 dubious dubious about sth/doing sth: not certain and slightly suspicious about sth; doubtful 半信半疑 ; 可疑 : I remain dubious about her motives. 我对她的动机仍存疑念. uncertain in result; in doubt 结果未定的 ; 不能确 定的 : The results of this policy will remain dubious for some time. 这项政策的效果短期内难以确定.

47 doubtful doubtful (about sth/doing sth) (of a person) feeling doubt; unsure (指人)感到怀疑, 不能确定 : feel doubtful about whether to go or not 拿不定主意去不去 causing doubt; uncertain 令人生疑的 ; 不肯定的 : The weather looks rather doubtful, ie unsettled. 天气看来靠不住(可能会变天). a doubtful (ie unreliable) ally 不可靠的盟友 unlikely; improbable 未必的 ; 不大可能的 : It is extremely doubtful that anyone survived the explosion. 在那场爆炸中很难有幸存者. [attrib 作定 语 ] possibly dishonest, disreputable, etc; causing suspicion; questionable (诚实﹑ 名声等)不大好的, 可疑的, 有问题 a rather doubtful character, neighborhood, past 很可疑的人物﹑ 邻居﹑ 过去.

48 suspicious suspicious (about/of sth/sb) having or showing suspicion 有疑心的 ; 表示怀疑的 : a suspicious look, attitude 怀疑的样子﹑ 态度 I'm very suspicious about her motives. 我对她的动机甚为怀 疑. He is suspicious of (ie does not trust) strangers. 他不信任陌生人. causing suspicion 引起怀疑的 ; 可疑的 : a suspicious action, remark 可疑的行动﹑ 言语 a suspicious character, ie sb who may be dishonest 不可靠的人 It's very suspicious that she was in the house when the crime happened. 案发时她在房子里, 此点非常可疑.

49 17. Most have no problem singing because the lyrics’ rhythmic pattern flows by itself.: -- Most stutterers can sing without stuttering because they can sing along with the rhythm pattern which just flows by itself.

50 18. He never pushed anything at me again; he just wanted all his students to wake up.: -- From then on he never gave me pressure, and what he tried to do was to help students realize and tap their potential.

51 Questions for discussion 1)What are supposed to be the causes of his stuttering? 2)Why could he talk to all kinds of animals on the farm, but not in front of people? 3)What attracted Prof. Crouch to the writer’s school? 4)How did Prof. Crouch help the author to find his voice?

52 1) What are supposed to be the causes of his stuttering? The first cause is that he moved “ from the warm, easy ways of catfish country to the harsh climate of the north, where people seemed so different”. The second is that he felt great pressure from his grandfather who had an inherited love for language and was always accurate and fluent in speaking.

53 2) Why could he talk to all kinds of animals on the farm, but not in front of people? Shame and humiliation held him back from public speaking. The more he worried about being laughed at because of his stuttering, the more he retreated from other people. And it got worse as he grew older.

54 3) What attracted Prof. Crouch to the writer’s school? It was his deep love for poems that attracted Prof. Crouch to the writer’s school.

55 4) How did Prof. Crouch help the author to find his voice? He “tricked” the boy by questioning whether the poem was really written by himself. The teacher’s disbelief made the boy very angry, and to prove he really did it, he recited the whole poem to the class without any stuttering. which gave him a big surprise and a lot of self-confidence at the same time.

56 Part III (Paragraphs 23-29) The concluding part shows various honors and successes the writer has obtained, which further emphasizes the great effect the teacher has brought about on the writer’s career as well as his whole life. He would never forget that it was Prof. Crouch who had made him a successful actor and announcer out of a stuttering boy.

57 Language work 19. I... supported myself between roles by sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages.: -- Before acting any new role, I... supported myself by sweeping the floors of off-Broadway stages. /... supported myself by sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages before there was any new role for me to play.

58 20. “Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it?”: -- “Can I offer you a flight from Michigan to New Haven to see my acting?” (25) …helped in part by the realization that… Paraphrase: The realization... partly helped me to understand him, so I said, “I understand. Professor.”

59 21.... he was still living in a world vibrant with all of the beautiful treasures he had stored. : --... he had stored many poems by memorizing them so he could enjoy his life with the rhythms of poetry even after he had lost his sight. /... he was still living in a world that was exciting and lively because of all the beautiful poems he had memorized.

60 22. resurrect: -- cause something to live again after it has disappeared That noise is enough to resurrect the dead! 那噪音都能把死人吵活 ! resurrect old customs, habits, traditions, etc 恢复旧 的习俗﹑ 习惯﹑ 传统等 The Home Office ( 英国内政部 ) have resurrected plans to build a new prison just outside London. the Resurrection [sing] (religion 宗 ) : the rising of Jesus from the tomb 耶稣复活

61 Easter: origin Origin of Easter - A Christian Commemoration The origin of Easter, a holiday associated with the observance of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, is actually based on an ancient pagan ( 异教的,非 基督教的 ) celebration. Christians recognize this day as commemorating the culminating ( 达到高 潮 ) event of their faith, but like so many other "Christian" holidays, Easter has become commercialized and mixed with non-Christian traditions like the Easter Bunny, Easter parades and hunting for Easter eggs. How did this happen?

62 The origin of Easter involves the birth of Semiramis' ( 塞米勒米斯, 古 代传说中的亚述女王 ) illegitimate son, Tammuz. Somehow, Semiramis convinced the people that Tammuz was actually Nimrod reborn. Since people had been looking for the promised savior since the beginning of mankind (see Genesis 3:15), they were persuaded by Semiramis to believe that Tammuz was that savior, even that he had been supernaturally conceived. Before long, in addition to worshipping Tammuz (or Nimrod reborn), the people also worshipped Semiramis herself as the goddess of fertility. In other cultures, she has been called Ishtar, Ashtur and yes, Easter. The origin of Easter goes back to the springtime ritual instituted by Semiramis following the death of Tammuz, who, according to tradition, was killed by a wild boar ( 野猪 ). Legend has it that through the power of his mother's tears, Tammuz was "resurrected" in the form of the new vegetation that appeared on the earth.

63 According to the Bible, it was in the city of Babel that the people created a tower in order to defy God. Up until that time, all the people on the earth spoke one language. The building of the tower led God, as recorded in Genesis 11:7, to confuse their tongues to keep them from being further unified in their false beliefs. As the people moved into other lands, many of them took their pagan practices with them. Contemporary traditions such as the Easter Bunny and the Easter egg can also be traced back to the practices established by Semiramis. Because of their prolific nature, rabbits have long been associated with fertility and its goddess, Ishtar. Ancient Babylonians believed in a fable about an egg that fell into the Euphrates River from heaven and from which Queen Astarte (another name for Ishtar or Semiramis) was "hatched."

64 About Easter Jesus Christ died on a cross on a Friday almost two thousand years ago. Christians believe that on the following Sunday, Christ rose from the dead and, in doing so, proved that He is the Son of God. The day Jesus died and was buried is known as Good Friday( 复活节前的星期 五 ; 耶稣受难日 ). The following Sunday is Easter. Christians celebrate the resurrection of the Son of God each year between March 22nd and April 25th (the first Sunday after the vernal equinox). Religious celebrations include family gatherings and special Easter church services. Easter in 2009 is on April 12.

65 Easter Traditions Easter traditions differ around the world. Here are just a few of them. Children in the United States and Canada say the Easter bunny or rabbit brings eggs at Easter. In Germany and England, they say the hare brings them. The hare looks like a rabbit, but it's larger, with longer ears and legs. In Australia, rabbits are quite a nuisance as they are not native to the land. For this reason, there is an attempt being made to dub the Bilby as the chief egg bringer of the land. For lack of a better description, the Bilby looks a bit like a cross between a mouse and a rabbit. But there are more foods than eggs to enjoy on Easter! People in Russia eat an Easter bread that is full of plump white raisins and tastes like cake. In some countries of Eastern Europe, people enjoy an Easter Cake called babka. It‘s shaped like a skirt -- babka means “little old woman”. Easter cakes in Italy are shaped like a rabbit, which is a symbol of birth and new life and many other countries make cookies and cakes shaped like a lamb, a symbol of Jesus. Hot cross buns are another traditional Easter bread with icing ( 糖衣 ) in the shape of a cross.

66 Easter eggs are a popular sign of the holiday. (Left) Coloured Easter eggs in the United States. (Right)

67 Questions for discussion 1) Why did the writer want to show his successes to his teacher? 2) What kind of comments did the writer make about his teacher?

68 1) Why did the writer want to show his successes to his teacher? Because he wanted to show his gratitude to his teacher.

69 2) What kind of comments did the writer make about his teacher? He spoke highly of him, respecting him as a father who provided a new life for him by helping him find his voice and leading him to the world of literature.

70 Text comprehension Exercise III (p. 155) 1. Why could the narrator hardly believe that such good things as described in Paragraph 1 could ever happen to him? Because the great achievements were far beyond the expectations of such a poor stutterer as he used to be. When he was young he was completely unable to speak in public due to his serious stuttering. Thus he could never imagine that he would make such good achievements.

71 2. Why does the narrator describe his moving at the age of five as traumatic? Because he felt that the place he moved to was drastically different climatically and culturally from where he had been.

72 3. Why did the narrator quit Sunday school and church? Because he wanted to avoid the humiliation he suffered there for his stuttering.

73 4. Why does the narrator say the farm animals knew he could talk? Because the animals never laughed at him, he was not nervous at all when he talked to them as a way of venting his feelings.

74 5. Why couldn’t Prof. Crouch stand not being a part of the narrator’s school? Because he loved English classics, especially poetry, which was one of the subjects taught at the narrator’s school. His deep love for poetry was vividly described in the metaphor: “He held a book of poems as if it were a diamond necklace, turning pages as if uncovering treasures.”

75 6. What event made the narrator open his mouth in public without stuttering for the first time? It was Prof. Crouch’s trick. When the narrator handed in his poem, Prof. Crouch purposefully challenged him for his authorship. Consequently the narrator was provoked into reciting his poem in the presence of his classmates without stuttering.

76 Paraphrase 1.... he wanted very much to be a teacher of our school. 2.... we found a strong connection between us. 3. I... supported myself by sweeping floors of off- Broadway stages before there was any new role for me to play. 4. The realization... partly helped me to understand him, so I said, “I understand. Professor.” 5.... he was still living in a world that was exciting and lively because of all the beautiful poems he had memorized.

77 Rhetorical features of the text The New Testament is repeated because the author takes it as his greatest honour to read such an important book on tape. It is distributed this way because the author wants to tell the reader from the beginning of his personal account what achievements he has made since he got over his stuttering problem and express his gratitude to the father of his resurrected voice. By mentioning the New Testament again at the end of the narration, the author successfully harks back (return) to the opening paragraph and thus unifies the text into an organic whole.

78 Grammar exercises -I Can and could can express ability, permission and possibility. In sentence 1, could express possibility. In sentence 9, can expresses permission. In sentences 3, 4, 5, could expresses the general past ability, while in sentences 2, 6, 7, 8, 10, could is used in the negative sentence to refer to the past ability, general or specific.

79 Grammar exercises -II 1. am feeling → can feel 2. could→ was able to 3. can → will be able to 4. / 5. could → was able to 6. /

80 can; be able to 1. can 只有两种时态, 即 can 和 could, 而 be able to 有多种时态, 如 was/were able to, will/shall be able to, have/has been able to 等 : I’ll be able to drive the car in a week. Through his diligent work, the deaf-mute has been able to read and write in a sign language.

81 2 .表示过去通过努力终于做成了某事要用 be able to ,而不能用 can 。如: I was able to swim to the bank after the boat turned over. 3 . can 可以表 “ 允许 ”, 与 may 可以互换, 此 时不能用 be able to 代替。如: “Can / May I sit here ? ” “Yes, please.”

82 4. can 能表猜测, be able to 不能。 can 的这种用法 主要用于疑问句和否定句。 Somebody is knocking at the door. Who can it be? It can’t be our teacher who is knocking at the door. 其肯定形式是 must be 。如 : It must be our teacher who is knocking at the door. must have done something 表示对现在完成或过 去动作的猜测,其否定形式是 can’t have done 。 如 : “His parents must have gone abroad.” “No, I don’t think so. They can’t have gone, for I saw them only this morning.”

83 5. can 是情态动词,只能用作谓语成分, be able to 是普通动词短语,既可以作谓 语,也可以作非谓语。如: Being able to speak English fluently, he has no difficulty in communicating with the Americans at the party. How I long to be able to communicate with the foreigners in fluent English!

84 6. be able to 后边接动词不定式表示一种实际情 况时,其否定形式不是 be not able to ,而是 cannot 。如: Were you able to catch the first bus yesterday morning? No, I couldn’t. 7. 一般说来, be able to 后边的动词不定式没有 被动语态。如 : I’m sure he is able to correct his mistakes in grammar. 不说 : *I’m sure his mistakes are able to be corrected by him.

85 Practice 1 1. –Take a seat, please. You must be very tired after a day’s work. --Thank you, but I ______ tired. A. can’t be B. am not C. mustn’t be D. may not 2. I hope you _______ catch up with your classmates in a few weeks. A. to be able to B. can C. be able to D. able to Answer: B B

86 3. -- “What do you think of the news in today’s newspaper?” -- “It _______ be true.” A. mustn’t B. isn’t be able to C. can D. can’t 4. Through generations of hardworking, our country ________ produce IC with its own intellectual property rights. A. is able to B. can C. has been able to D. could 5. Our teacher was ill yesterday, and so we ________ have a day off. A. could B. can C. were able to D. may ANSWER: D C C

87 6. He studied very hard last term, so he ______ get the first prize in the final examination. A. could B. was able to C. might D. would 7. You _____________too careful in your lessons. A. are never able to be B. can never be C. can be D. must 8. He must have worked out the problem last night, ___? A. mustn’t he B. hasn’t he C. didn’t he D. can’t he ANSWER: B B C

88 9. -- Was he able to pass the test for the driver’s license? -- No, he ___________. A. was not able B. couldn’t C. wasn’t able to D. wasn’t able to pass 10. I __________ make a living in the USA because I’m not good in English. A. am unable to B. am not able to C. can D. am impossible to ANSWER: BA

89 Grammar exercises -III 1. Could we meet again tomorrow? 2. She could sing tike an angle when she was a kid. 3. John was so drunk that he couldn’t open the door. 4. I don’t type very well, but I could finish the reports without making too many mistakes. 5. / 6. You could talk with your teacher. 7. No one knows where he is. He could be in Paris. He could be in London. 8. Could 1 use your phone?

90 Translation -I 1. People were flooding in from the surrounding countryside. 2. His performance has come close to perfection. 3. Mary was in a daze all the way to London. 4. In this mountain retreat you can find the best climate in the country.

91 5. He leaned back into his seat and relaxed, savoring the comfort. 6. What makes this young couple proud is that their child could recite poems from memory at the age of three. 7. He repeated in public what he had said in private. 8. A family vibrant with life and love is to be built with the joint efforts of all its members.

92 Translation -II 从 8 岁到 11 岁,我在英格兰巴思的一所教会小学上学 。那是一所很小的学校,由 4 个班级组成,每个班大 约有 25 个孩子,按年龄分班。一般都是由一个老师负 责教一个班的全部课程。但是,校长罗纳德 ∙ 布罗克 斯先生偶尔也会到班里来,用大约一个小时的时间讲 授他特别喜欢的课程。他对我很感兴趣,并且很快就 知道我喜欢破解难题。他经常在我今教室的路上拦住 我,从口袋里掏出一张纸条给我,上面通常写着数学 或逻辑学方面的难题。随着时间的推移,题目难度逐 步增大,可我非常喜欢。这些小纸条点燃了我对数学 和解题的热爱,这种热爱一直保持到今天。当我找出 答案时,我会觉得那种智力活动很有价值,或许更重 要的是,那是一种巨大的乐趣。

93 Text II Thank you, Mr. Chips 1. That’s because he is not a physicist. What’s more, he even failed in a math test in the MIT entrance examination when he was young and never had much formal physics training in his life­time. 2. He won the Nobel Prize in physics because he invented microchips and launched a technological revolution, which benefited the people all over the world.

94 3. No, he didn’t. To him, the job of an engineer is to solve problems. When he solved one problem, he began to solve another without paying attention to his personal gains. 4. No. The last paragraph tells us that our media-saturated society is always looking for new faces and genuine national heroes like Kilby have been overlooked.

95 Quiz -- Vocabulary 1. 三部曲 / 剧 2. 布道, 讲道 3. 导师, 顾问 4. 使复活 / 复兴 5. 充裕的, 丰富的 6. 口吃, 结巴 7. 羞辱 8. 撤退 ; 隐居地 9. 军事演习 ; 调动 10. 茫然, 迷茫 11. 怀疑的 ; 无把握的 12. 创伤的 13. 演说的 ; 雄辩的 14. 窃笑

96 Vocabulary --Key 1. trilogy2. sermon 3. mentor4. resurrect 5. abundant6. stutter 7. humiliate8. retreat 9. maneuver10. daze 11. dubious12. traumatic 13. oratorical14. snicker

97 Dictation As human beings,/ we have the special ability to share our thoughts by talking. / We start by forming a thought in our brains. / In the brain,/ this thought is changed into a code called language./ Finally, the brain sends a message to the muscles,/ telling them to move/ and make the right sounds come out. / Then the mouth, face, neck, tongue, and throat muscles move into motion./

98 Sometimes this process doesn’t work perfectly, though./ There might be an interruption or break/ in the flow of speech. / This interruption is called disfluency. / Disfluency becomes a speech problem/ when it gets in the way of everyday talking/ and is noticeable to other people./ It can make it hard to get thoughts out./ It can also cause a lot of embarrassment or frustration/ for the person who is talking.

99 Oral practice Work in pairs. Tell a story about someone who experienced failure (or abandonment, misjudgment, rejection, fear, or misfortune, natural disaster) but chose to face and change the reality and has become successful.

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