3The pleasures of reading? Getting totally lost in a bookBeing emotionally engaged with the textBecoming absorbed in an unfolding narrative; needing to know what happens nextBeing fascinated by information on a topic that intrigues youAnticipating enjoyment from reading both the words and the imagesTalking to other readers – informally or in organised book groupsBeing inspired by books (response).
4Reading for pleasureReading for pleasure refers to reading that we to do of our own free will anticipating the satisfaction that we will get from the act of reading. It also refers to reading that having begun at someone else’s request we continue because we are interested in it. It typically involves materials that reflect our own choice, at a time and place that suits us.This is what we want all children to experience.
5Reading for pleasureAccording to Krashen (1993), a major proponent of the value of readingfor pleasure:“When children read for pleasure, when they get ‘hookedon books’, they acquire, involuntarily and without consciouseffort, nearly all of the so-called ‘language skills’ manypeople are so concerned about: they will become adequatereaders, acquire a large vocabulary, develop the ability tounderstand and use complex grammatical constructions,develop a good writing style, and become good (but not necessarilyperfect) spellers. Although free voluntary reading alone will not ensureattainment of the highest levels of literacy, it will at least ensure anacceptable level. Without it, I suspect that children simply do not have achance.
6Research: the evidence Reading for pleasure is positively linked with the followingliteracy-related benefits:reading attainment and writing ability (for reading that is done both in school and out of school)text comprehension and grammar (even after a variety of health, wealth and school factors are statistically controlled for)breadth of vocabulary (even after other relevant abilities such as IQ or text-decoding skills are controlled for)positive reading attitudes, which are linked to achievement in readinggreater self-confidence as a readerpleasure reading in later life.Studies show that promoting reading for pleasure can have a major impact on children/young people and adults and their future...
7greater impact on a child’s educational achievement than OECD researchEnjoyment of reading has agreater impact on a child’seducational achievement thantheir parents’ socio-economicstatus.(OECD Reading for Change, 2002)The one thing that overcomes pupils’ disadvantage at birth.
8PIRLS research As with almost all countries, pupils in England who had higherlevels of enjoyment in readinghad higher average achievementthan their peers.(PIRLS 2011: Reading Achievementin England)Time and time again, reading has been shown as the one thing that overcomes pupils’ disadvantage at birth.
9Reading for pleasure Unfortunately a number of studies have shown that...boys enjoy reading less and therefore read less than girls (e.g. Clark and Foster, 2005);children from lower socio-economic backgrounds read less for enjoyment than children from more privileged social classes (e.g. Clark and Akerman, 2006).studies show that promotingeading can have a major impact on children/young people and adults and their future.
10What surveys tell us...A survey of school children for World Book Day in 2002 found that 15 to 16 year old boys spent 2.3 hours a week reading for pleasure, compared to 9 hours a week playing computer games or 11 hours watching television.Girls spent considerably more time reading, namely 4.5 hours a week.However, when boys were reading they did so because they enjoyed it. Specifically, 81% of 11 to 12 year olds and 76% of 14 to 16 year olds reported reading for pleasure.
11Reading for pleasure in decline? A UK survey – Children’s Attitudes to Reading (Sainsbury and Schagen, 2004) – indicates that children’s reading enjoyment has declined significantly in the last five years ( ), especially amongst older children.The percentage of engaged readers has declined between 1998and 2003 from 77% to 71% among Year 4 pupils and from 77% to 65% amongst Year 6 pupils.There is also evidence that the decline in enjoyment over the last five years has been more pronounced among boys than girls. Among Year 6 pupils, the percentage of boys who say that they enjoy reading has declined from 70% in 1998 to 55% in By contrast, the percentage of girls who say that they enjoy reading has declined from 85% in 1998 to 75% in 2003.Children were also less likely to enjoy going to a library and more likely to prefer watching television to reading than they were in 1998.Another study by the Schools Health Education Unit (2004) found that the proportion of 10-year-old boys who read books at home nearly halved during the previous five years.Suggested reasons?
12Reading for pleasure in decline? Sections on reading in Key Stages 1 to 3 of the National Literacy Strategy: ‘reinforce’, ‘predict’, ‘check’, ‘discuss’… and so on. 71 different verbs for the activities that come under the heading of ‘reading’. The word ‘enjoy’ doesn’t appear once.Suggested reasons?
13In summary...Reading skills have improved; confidence and enjoyment have declined.Girls read for pleasure more than boys.Reading for pleasure decreases with age (teenage, early adult – increases again later in life).Most recognise importance of reading.Some say boring/ can’t find anything want to read.
14What is different in the new reading curriculum? Reading for pleasure has a central roleLiterature is acknowledged as playing an important role in growth as an individual
15Reading, literature, books Through reading in particular, pupils have a chance to develop culturally, emotionally, spiritually and socially.Literature, especially, plays a key role in such development.Draft NC March 2013 page13
16Reading for pleasureDevelop a love of literature through widespread reading for enjoyment;Develop the habit of reading widely and often for both pleasure and information;Appreciate our rich and varied literary heritage;Establish an appreciation and love of reading;Open up a treasure-house of wonder and joy for curious young minds.Draft NC March 2013 page13
17In each year programme are the words Pupils should be taught to:Develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read and understanding by …The requirement then is to TEACH reading for pleasure
18Reading motivationReading attitudes refer to the feelings and beliefs an individual has with respect to reading. Reading interest relates to people’s preferences for genres, topics, tasks or contexts. Reading motivation refers to the internal states that make people read. This decreases with age (especially if attitudes towards reading become less positive). If children do not enjoy reading when they are young, they are less likely to do so when they are older.
19Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation:engagement in an activity that is based on personal interest in theactivity itself. Readers who are intrinsically motivated are more likely tofind a variety of topics that interest them and to benefit from anaccompanying sense of pleasure.Importance of reading - the belief that reading is valuable.Curiosity - the desire to learn about a particular topic of personal interest.Involvement - the enjoyment of reading certain kinds of literary orinformation texts.Preference for challenging reading - the satisfaction of mastering or assimilating complex ideas in text.
20Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation engagement in an activity in response to external values and demands.For example, when children read to avoid punishment or to meetteachers’ or parents’ expectations.Reading for recognition - the pleasure in receiving a tangible form of recognition for success.Reading for grades - the desire to be favourably evaluated by the teacher.Competition in reading - the desire to outperform others in reading.Extrinsic motivation can be used to bring about intrinsic motivation.
21Reading development Role play reading Experimental reading Early readingTransitional readingIndependent readingAdvanced reading
22What is an independent reader? How is independence determined in our school? Is there a description in the reading policy?Do pupils just become free readers? Independence defined through what ‘reading book’ a child is on?What does an independent reader look like? Behaviours?
23Transition to being independent involves: practising the early skills until they are automaticlearning how to find meanings beyond the literalexploring and valuing their personal responsesbeing able to express those responses in wordslearning to make their own choicesgaining stamina as a readerfeeling successful, confident and independentbehaving like readers – expressing opinions, being critical and discriminating.Some backgroundI was in a reading group sixty years ago‘Group reading’ as a teaching method was first introduced in the 1970s and 1980sMuch was based on work in Australia (Don Holdaway) and New Zealand (Marie Clay)Over years it developed into a set of principles rather than a routineLiterature Circles, Reciprocal, Group, Guided.
24Taking off as readersChildren reach a ‘pivotal plateau’ when they can use decoding strategies without assistance.They will still need a great deal of support and practice at decoding until it becomes automatic. Their reading books must be at a consistent linguistic level.Progress is about deepening understanding, breadth of experience, increasing stamina and personal response. Progress is demonstrated by attitudes and reading for pleasure.
25For most children the transition to being a reader takes a long time to thrive and gain confidence children need be successful not struggling readersto experience enjoyment they must get ‘lost in the book’ which involves being able to read their books with easeimprovement is not about which book they are on but their attitude to readingto demonstrate progress they must be experienced at talking about books.
26What is the purpose of a ‘reading book’? To practise newly established skillsTo reinforce learning objectives from taught reading sessionsTo gain confidence in growing ability, feeling independent and in controlTo develop stamina as a readerTo increase literary experienceTo experience the pleasures of readingTo establish preferences as a reader.
27Young readers need to wallow in books that they can read with ease Wallowing in books will enable children to:practise their new found skillsfeel like successful readersexperience a wide range and variety of readingenjoy their reading and share the pleasure with othersbe motivated to tackle more challenging reading materials.
28Draft NC Year 3By the beginning of Year 3, pupils should be able to read books written at an age-appropriate interest level. They should be able to read them accurately and at a speed that is sufficient for them to focus on understanding what they read rather than on decoding individual words.
29To create independent readers and teach reading for pleasure teachers must … Allow children time to get absorbed in books:by reading aloud to themoffering books they can read with easeBe readers themselves who model reading behaviours and create communities of readersHave a growing familiarity with children’s books that will provide them with: - confidence to make decisions about all the different texts used to teach literacy in their classroom - a choice of books to read aloud to children - reading materials for children’s individual reading.
30Choice strategies Choice and control enhances engagement; need guidance also.Five finger ruleRecommendationsNot ‘good’ or ‘bad’ (imposed perceptions)Use negative choice – what don’t you like?Handout: ‘How to choose a good book’.
31Choice strategies Cover Blurb Length Emotion Author Series Pictures TopicA structure to start thinking about books/ talking about books to others.Pupils select a book – few mins thinking about CLAP/ BEST. Pair up: 2 mins to say 2 things like most, one least (using CLAP and BEST). Move on + repeat.Repeat with books read – more detailed/ structured +ve and –ve.
32Promoting Reading for Pleasure Increase the visibility of reading throughout the schoolPeer-to-peer recommendationUse ICT to promote reading activityReading eventsPupils’ reading groupsBuddying schemesReading areas/ libraryFamily support; family events/ activitiesLibrary visitsCommunity – reading volunteersReading Champions/ Ambassadors
33Promoting Reading for Pleasure Some ideas...Request boxesReading Ambassadors: Book of the Month (poster)Make screensavers of favourite authors or reads/ rotate on serverGet caught reading (images and captions – poster size)Belly bands for books (short movie-style reviews)‘Our school reads’ film: montage for school websitePoints rewards systems – recommendations acted uponSurveys and rewards charts
34“A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies, said Jojen “A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies, said Jojen. The man who never reads lives only one.” - George R.R. Martin “You're the same today as you'll be in five years except for the people you meet and the books you read.” - Charlie Jones “There is no such thing as a child who hates to read; there are only children who have not found the right book.” - Frank Serafini
35“It is not enough to simply teach children to read; we have to give them something worth reading. Something that will stretch their Imaginations - something that will help them make sense of their own lives and encourage them to reach out toward people whose lives are quite different from their own.” - Katherine Patterson “There are many little ways to enlarge your child’s world. Love of books is the best of all.” - Jacqueline Kennedy “A parent or a teacher has only his lifetime; a good book can teach forever.” - Louis L’Amour