Presentation on theme: "Marking scholarship essays! Monique Van Groenewoud St Cuthbert’s College."— Presentation transcript:
Marking scholarship essays! Monique Van Groenewoud St Cuthbert’s College
Plan for the session Nuts and bolts A context for your learning - Performance Improvement 2009 Unpacking the content schedule Unpacking Critical Thinking Unpacking the 8 levels of performance & marker codes Analysis of a student essay Comparing results to the examiner’s mark Completing a PMI Other helpful ideas Session evaluation (KWL) Marking one student’s essay Shared marking Content overview
Scholarship – Nuts & Bolts NZQA website is where you will find: The Scholarship PE Performance Standard The current Assessment Specifications Past Examinations, Assessment Schedules, Reports and some student exemplars standards/awards/scholarship/scholarship- subjects/scholarship-physical-education standards/awards/scholarship/scholarship- subjects/scholarship-physical-education Auckland PENZ wikispace is where you will find: Auckland PENZ Scholarship workshop series of resources for hops/ hops Student essay samples
Gaining Scholarship Although results vary from year to year… To gain scholarship, ○ a total score of 13 is likely to be the minimum standard. To gain outstanding scholarship, ○ a total score of 18 is likely to be the minimum standard.
2009 Q3 Performance Improvement Consider the following three extracts demonstrating a range of opinions on whether athletes are made or born: ““Ever dreamed of standing atop a podium and having a medal placed around your neck? … How much is athletic prowess due to genetics and how much is due to training and environment?” Torgan (2002) “Athletic records are broken year after year, and the limits of human performance continue to be debated … Is there any limit?”Quinn (2008) “One possibility is that some people are simply natural born superhumans … – the key to gaining the ultimate competitive advantage may be hidden in our genes.” Geddes (2007) Drawing on your knowledge and experience of factors that lead to performance improvement, critically evaluate whether athletes are made or born. Illustrate your answer with appropriate examples from your own knowledge and experience.
2009 Content Schedule Evidence (Left column) The candidate: The initial statement covers what is expected in taking a position. A critical evaluation should include… The section covers what is expected in the essay. The candidate may consider… This section gives a detailed account of knowledge that could be covered in this question. Judgement (Right Column) Descriptors for performance levels are blocked into pairs: Outstanding (7-8 marks) Excellent (5-6 marks) Sound (3-4 marks) Basic (1-2 marks) Overall a student would expect to get scholarship with a combined mark of at least 13 across the 3 essays. This total can vary from year to year
The Mark Schedule The question is focused on examining if the candidate can critically evaluate the notion whether athletes are “made” or “born”. The student’s answer must provide a reasoned argument that integrates knowledge about factors impacting on performance improvement (biophysical and socio-cultural)
Key elements of the essay A critical evaluation should include: DEPTH & BREADTH of knowledge drawing on biophysical and socio-cultural factors Examples – research, own experience, wider society Taking a position from both viewpoints Made AND born Some factors more/less important in specific circumstances
Athletes are “born” + “made” i.e. synthesis of genetics + training + socio-cultural factors “Born” - Genetic factors can give advantage “Made” - Training & Socio-cultural factors develop the athlete Consider environmental factors (SPEECH factors) on opportunities to participate and improve Key elements continued
What is critical evaluation? Is a synthesis of ideas Evaluating against something Making a valid judgement based on personal experience, readings, gathered information Evaluating what worked, why/why not. Whether there was anything else that could have been done Challenging assumptions Providing personal ideas backed up with reasoning Finding solutions based on critical and creative thinking, that may change things
What do some of the words mean? PRO’S & CON’S The ability to interpret the: Good and/or bad points. Direct and indirect effects. Barriers vs enablers. Strengths vs weaknesses COMPARE & CONTRAST Look at different facets of the problem. Identify similarities and differences.
CHALLENGING BELIEFS & ASSUMPTIONS Distinguish between fact, opinion and inferences. Recognises and analyses assumptions ○ old wives tales ○ urban myths ○ out of date information Challenging sweeping statements
BIAS Understanding a bias may be present Studies/data may reflect a personal agenda Information may only consider one side of the argument Definitions are open to interpretation SYNTHESIS The process of combining different ideas, information, influences, and/or personal judgements into a new statement.
Developing a critical stance Encourage students to look at the world with fresh eyes… A critical stance is a position that: Is not on the fence Is not at the extreme ends of a continuum Considers both & of a single situation Considers multiple views that vary according to the specifics of a situation Challenges underlying assumptions, stereotypes and privileged positions
For Example: Video is sometimes helpful because it allows me to see myself and I get a clearer picture of what I am doing, than when I am told what to do. However, at the cognitive stage of learning I do not have the knowledge base to correctly identify errors, so video would be more helpful when I am better at detecting errors or I have a coach alongside me helping to identify what I should look at….
Broad Sociological Issues Also encourage students to consider the bigger picture… One size fits all ~ individual needs/differences are not considered Scientism & Technocentricity ~ a focus on quantitative measurement & scientific proof, which is perceived to be superior The body as a project ~ a focus on improvement without considering other aspects of wellbeing Commodification ~ using the body, sports profile, etc for monetary gain Healthism ~ a focus on the individual’s responsibility on their wellbeing without consideration of other influencing factors Hegemony ~ advantage, privilege, the hidden strategies to maintain power imbalances in society
Critical thinking/ evaluating Tools & Strategies Debono’s Critical Thinking Hats (add bias after white) Compare And Contrast PMIS (Plus, Minus Issues, Suggestions) Reasonable / Inspiration SPEECH Court room battles 3 Storey Intellect Model CAMPER Fact vs opinion chart 3 level Guide DATT tools
The Levels of Performance Poor ~ 1 to 2 marks Ideas stated, information recalled. The candidate shows no evidence of critical evaluation and demonstrates a basic understanding of physical education, arising from both theoretical knowledge and practical application.
Level 2: Well below the standard No critical thinking or evaluation Or an incomplete response, e.g. may only write a few paragraphs in response to the question No development of ideas. Level 1: A long way below the standard Incomplete response, e.g. may only write a few paragraphs in response to the question No development of ideas Blank answer, or irrelevant evidence. Key words/concepts at level 1-2 Poor Performance
The Levels of Performance Poor ~ 1 to 2 marks Key Elements: NO Critical Evaluation Minimal Theoretical / Practical application 2 = Some evidence of relevant subject knowledge 1 = Minimal evidence of relevant subject knowledge
The Levels of Performance Sound ~ 3 to 4 marks Critically evaluates information to demonstrate an informed understanding of physical education, arising from both theoretical and practical application. The candidate attempts to address the question – is able to apply some relevant understanding. Reasonably well organised, inconsistencies evident, superficial coverage and examples do not relate to or detract from the answer.
Level 4: Borderline to the standard Some critical thinking without critical evaluation Increasing repetition, breadth and lack of depth / development of ideas. Level 3: Below the standard Little critical thinking and no critical evaluation Merely a response, recall, summary, description, explanation, evaluation of the question. Key words/concepts at level 3-4 Sound Performance
The Levels of Performance Sound ~ 3 to 4 marks Key Elements: Little/Some Critical Thinking Theoretical + Practical application Superficial coverage Some relevant knowledge from Biophysical, Socio- cultural, Performance improvement theory 4 = Some Critical Thinking + Breadth 3 = Recall + Evaluation
The Levels of Performance Excellent ~ 5 to 6 marks The candidate’s response critically evaluates information to demonstrate an holistic understanding of physical education, arising from both theoretical and practical application though not to the same standard as for the outstanding candidate.
Level 6: Critical evaluation An answer worthy of Scholarship No repetition of ideas Some aspects of the answer lack development or depth Critically answers the question. Level 5: At scholarship standard Some critical evaluation Some repetition of ideas Critically answers the question More evidence of depth and development of ideas being sacrificed in order to be more encompassing / breadth. Key words/concepts at level 5-6 Excellence Performance
The Levels of Performance Excellent ~ 5 to 6 marks Key Elements: Critical Evaluation Taking a position Logical Breadth is evident Performance Improvement = Biophysical + Socio-cultural + Training/Practice Synthesis of Genetic + Environment + Training 6 = Balance between Theory + Application + No repetition 5 = More breadth with less depth + Repetition + Issues with fluency/logic
The Levels of Performance Outstanding ~ 7 to 8 marks The candidate’s response demonstrates depth of understanding and breadth of knowledge through a high level of sophistication across a range of factors including integration of ideas, original thought, fluency, and logical and precise communication. There is a balance in the integration of theory and practice.
Key words/concepts at level 7-8 Outstanding Performance Level 8: Critical evaluation Outstanding Holistic and creative in most aspects Depth in development of ideas Best that could be reasonably expected in the time available. Level 7: Critical evaluation Outstanding, but lacks consistent creativity and synthesis of ideas generated by a candidate that earns an 8 Depth in the development of ideas.
The Levels of Performance Outstanding ~ 7 to 8 marks Key Elements: Critical Evaluation Justifying a position Logical + Integrated ideas Depth + Breadth + Creative Ideas Performance Improvement = Biophysical + Socio-cultural + Training / Practice 8 = Clear demonstration ~ No modifications 7 = Clear demonstration ~ Minor modifications with synthesis & creativity
Marking Codes mark guide High mark Codes D – Defined/Definition R – Referenced /Quotes/Statistics SK – Subject Knowledge A – Applied OE – Own experience EID – Explained in detail CT – Creative thinking/Suggestions CR – Critical EV - Evaluation CREV – Critical Evaluation JPO – Justified position Lower mark Codes EX – Explained PO – Position GS – General/Statement AS – Assumption RD – Requires development N – Negates Argument IR – Irrelevant REP - Repetition Question Specific Codes BPF – Biophysical Factors (includes genetic and training factors) SCF – Socio-cultural Factors (SPEECH) FIP – Factors Influencing Performance
Essay Analysis – Think, Pair, Share Divide the analysis task between 3-5 markers. Each marker makes notes for 1+ of the following: Examples of critical thinking, critical evaluation, and a justified position related to the question Biophysical factors involved in performance improvement (Check for breadth & depth) Socio-cultural factors involved in performance improvement (Check for breadth & depth) Creative suggestions, integration, logical structure Problems – repetition, negating argument, irrelevant material, making assumptions, general knowledge/statements
Share evidence Share your findings in the group. What was covered in depth? What was covered superficially? Use the master or the assessment schedule to identify the significant gaps. What were the gaps? Review the marker’s codes What mark should this essay receive?
A quick reference guide Critical Evaluation Justifying a position Logical + Integrated ideas Depth + Breadth + Creative Ideas Performance Improvement = Biophysical + Socio-cultural + Practice/Training 1 = Minimal evidence of relevant subject knowledge 2 = Some evidence of relevant subject knowledge 3 = Recall + Evaluation 4 = Some Critical Thinking + Breadth 5 = More breadth with less depth + Repetition + Issues with fluency/logic 6 = Balance between Theory + Application + No repetition 7 = Clear demonstration ~ Minor modifications in synthesis and creativity 8 = Clear demonstration ~ No modifications
Providing feed-forward to students Use the following as a checklist for marking the essay Critical Evaluation Justifying a position Logical + Integrated ideas Creative Ideas Biophysical + Socio-cultural + Concepts related to the question Depth + Breadth Create a summary of theory content covered in the essay Biophysical + Socio-cultural + Concepts related to the question Depth + Breadth Complete the PMI as follows: PLUSES – identify any strengths in the essay(s) MINUSES – identify any significant gaps in the essay(s) ISSUES – what problems are evident in logic and/or structure
Next steps Use the PMI tool to … Provide feedback on individual essays Provide feedback to your scholarships students as a group Inform your scholarship teaching programme by identifying what is still required.
Further ideas that help Having your scholarship students mark essays is a valuable learning strategy for them too. Develop a bank of resources. Your resource bank of essays… ○ Range of marks from level 4 to 7 ○ Full range of essay topics Ask students to return their essays
KWL Please share with us one thought from the following questions… What did you know? What did you want to know? [What have we missed?] What have you learned? Now what… What are your next steps?
Concepts related to Planning Programmes Purpose – considering individual motivations Benefits and Risks Analysis Goal setting Planning (MOT’s & POT’s if applicable) Logistical considerations Monitoring Barriers and Enablers Socio-cultural influences
Concepts related to Health Promotion Desired outcomes of Health Promotion Contribute to wellbeing Foster active participation Behaviour change, self-empowerment and collective action Models of Health Promotion Behaviour change model Self-empowerment model Collective action model
Concepts related to Health Promotion An action competency strategy for health promotion Research and critical thinking to identify issue and gain insight Creating a vision including catering for individual needs Understanding barriers and enablers Planning and acting (logistical considerations) Reflecting and evaluating (effect on wellbeing)
Concepts related to Health Promotion What is quality physical activity SPARC & other recommendations Effects of PA on Wellbeing Benefits of PA Risks of PA SPEEECH influences on PA patterns Societal Political Economic Environmental Ethical Cultural Historical
Concepts related to Issues, Trends and Events A critical examination of the SPEECH influences on an issue. trend or event A critical examination and questioning of the ‘facts or evidence’ that support or refute the existence of the issue, trend or event The critical reflection of the likely impact of the issue trend and event on society