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The phases of research Dimitra Hartas. The phases of research Identify a research topic Formulate the research questions (rationale) Review relevant studies.

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Presentation on theme: "The phases of research Dimitra Hartas. The phases of research Identify a research topic Formulate the research questions (rationale) Review relevant studies."— Presentation transcript:

1 The phases of research Dimitra Hartas

2 The phases of research Identify a research topic Formulate the research questions (rationale) Review relevant studies Decide and justify the methods used Decide and conduct data analysis Organise the results Discuss and interpret the results Draw conclusion and state implications 2

3 Research topic / questions Where do research questions come from? contradictions in previous research findings, under-researched themes; issues that emerge in a professional setting; curiosity; policy-based research 3

4 Where do questions come from? The link between socio-economic disadvantage and child outcomes is well established. Ambiguity however surrounds the effectiveness of home learning, especially with regard to homework Lack of definitive conclusions about the effects of home learning Home learning and social adjustment has been relatively under-researched in young children 4

5 Group Task 1.Choose topic area, e.g.: Special Educational Needs Inequalities in schools Children’s voices Pedagogical practice Choose your own! 2.Write down key words/concepts that relate to area. 3.Produce 5 or 6 research questions that incorporate some of your key words. 5

6 Aim of a study The research purpose should be written as clearly and concisely as possible (mapping the goals, questions / topics to ensure consistency). Quant. research= the statement of purpose should refer to the variables under investigation; Qual. research= the statement of purpose refers to the emerging relationships between the issues under investigation. 6

7 Literature Review Critical summary of key findings within the topic area of your research Strengths and limitations of previous research Questions that previous research raises 7

8 Why a literature review? Identifies limitations in previous studies and existing gaps in knowledge; Assists in justifying the significance of the research topic ; supports the rationale for the research Assists in narrowing down the research topic and refining the research question(s); Assists in making and justifying decisions about the choice of research methodologies; Sets the framework within which new findings are placed and discussed; Helps us to develop an international perspective. 8

9 Rationale Identifying gaps in the literature (eg, under-researched areas); Replicating a previous study; Identifying a topic of high originality; Researching an area that is likely to make contribution to theory, policy and practice; Identifying a research area that bears important implications for social justice (emancipatory research); Identifying a research area based on a personal and professional insight and experience. 9

10 Research Design Consider and justify qualitative, quantitative and mixed approaches; Determine the methods for data collection (eg, interviews, questionnaires, document analysis) Discuss the assumptions that underlie research methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages; Delineate the threads between the research design / methods chosen and the research questions; Consider the viability of the research, in terms of time, other resources, access; Discuss issues regarding the reliability, validity and generalisability of the research. 10

11 Differences between research design and method? Research design is the overall strategy of conducting research and involves theoretical, ethical and methodological considerations. Method is a strategy for collecting data. The processes involved in deciding on what methods are appropriate are guided by the research design. 11

12 Methodology: Sample The characteristics of the participants are discussed here (eg, demographic information, characteristics that are important for the study, and sample size). Describe how the participants will be selected (sampling technique) and justify it What are the pros and cons of the chosen sampling technique? 12

13 Ethical considerations Think about: harm to participants confidentiality, anonymity, informed consent, relationship between the researcher and the researched (whose voice is it?), and who benefits from the research findings research-2/ research-2/ 13

14 Data Analysis Grounded theory; Statistical analysis; Content analysis. 14

15 Results Are the results presented in an organised manner (eg, themes under which conceptually related ideas are clustered)? Do the generated themes reflect / map onto the research questions? Is there consistency in the way the themes are presented? Are tables / graphs provided to present data in an organized and accessible manner? Are clear and succinct summaries of the key results offered? 15

16 Discussion Link, compare and contrast your findings with findings from previous studies: distinguish what has already been done from what you have done, and from what else that needs to be done; place your results in the context of the broader scholarly literature; interpret the results by accounting for the context of research; discuss the contribution of your results; articulate the theoretical, policy and practical importance of the results 16

17 Limitations Practical Theoretical 17

18 Overall view of a research project Have your research questions been answered? Are the results interpreted and located within the wider research context? How do your findings relate to previous research findings? What new knowledge and insight has been gained? How does the new knowledge inform theory, policy and practice in education? What are the theoretical and methodological limitations of the research? What can be concluded from these findings? What are the future research directions? 18

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