Presentation on theme: "Institutions of the British National Government Prime Minister & Cabinet Parliament Bureaucracy and Judiciary."— Presentation transcript:
Institutions of the British National Government Prime Minister & Cabinet Parliament Bureaucracy and Judiciary
Westminster Model Westminster Model – is a democratic parliamentary system of government modeled after the political system of the United Kingdom. – Term comes from the Palace of Westminster, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
British Government Overview unitary state London Britain is a unitary state with political authority centralized in London. three branches of government (executive, legislative, judiciary) bureaucracy Government has three branches of government (executive, legislative, judiciary) & a bureaucracy. Parliamentbicameral system House of Lords House of Commons Legislature (Parliament) is a bicameral system – House of Lords & House of Commons Parliamentary System Parliamentary System – a system of government where in the ministers of the executive branch are drawn from the legislature. Prime Minister is the head of government; Monarchy is the head of state Prime Minister is the head of government; Monarchy is the head of state
Prime Minister (PM) Prime Minister– is the leader of the majority party in Parliament – Considered to be the “first among equals” – Head of Government – Leader of the legislative and executive branch – no separation of powers – Not directly elected by the people – Chooses cabinet members – Represents the party in parliamentary elections – Lives at Number 10 Downing Street Gordon Brown British Prime Minister
The Cabinet Ministers Cabinet consists of the Prime Minister and the Ministers – head a major bureaucracy of the government. – Members are party leaders from Parliament chosen by the Prime Minister. – Collective Responsibility – Collective Responsibility – as leaders of the majority party elected by the people, the cabinet is the center of policymaking in the British political system
Parliament Parliament is a bicameral legislature with a House of Commons and a House of Lords. House of Commons House of Lords
Hereditary Peers Life Peers Members are either Hereditary Peers – seats passed down through family ties; or Life Peers – people appointed to seat through distinguished service to Britain Minimal power/influence Powers to delay legislation; debate technicalities of proposed bills; add amendments to legislation (simple majority vote override by Commons)
House of Commons Consist of Members of Parliament (MPs) – Currently 646 members Only ones who can become party leaders and ultimately the head of government (no outsiders) Parliamentary Sovereignty True policy making house of Parliament (Parliamentary Sovereignty – the principle that Parliament’s decisions are final) Controlled by the Prime Minister & the Majority Party
House of Commons Party Discipline Party Discipline – when all members of Parliament within a party vote together on every subject. – If party members do not support their leadership, the government lacks legitimacy. vote of confidence – Majority party wants to avoid losing a vote of confidence – a vote on a key issues. If lost, by tradition the cabinet must resign immediately and elections for new MPs must be held ASAP
House of Commons Loyal Opposition Side Minority Party; left of the Speaker Majority Party Side right of the Speaker Speaker of the House Overseer of debates; not a MP; apolitical Prime Minister Leader of majority party Leader of the Opposition Leader of minority party Leader of the Second Opposition Leader of 2 nd minority party Cabinet Members Shadow Cabinet “Backbenchers” “Backbenchers”
House of Commons Question Time Question Time – once a week, the Prime Minster & cabinet must defend themselves and their policies against the opposition – &feature=related (4:22) &feature=related – E (0:44) E – ms9Kc&feature=related (9:53) ms9Kc&feature=related
British Bureaucracy Top level bureaucrats (civil servants) are experts in their field and make a career of government service. Have a great deal of input into policymaking (discretionary power) due to their expertise. Their job is implement policy enacted by cabinet members. Usually never run for office or active in party politics Whitehall Palace in London Buildings where Cabinet Offices and British Bureaucracy Offices are housed.
British Judiciary Legal system based on common law (focuses on precedent & interpretation) Law Lords Law Lords – highest court, select members of the House of Lords Limited powers of judicial review due to the principal of parliamentary sovereignty (Parliament’s decisions are final) Courts may not impose rulings on Parliament, the Prime Minister or the cabinet Royal Courts of Justice in London