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Forms of Governments.

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Presentation on theme: "Forms of Governments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Forms of Governments

2 SS7CG4b Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic (autocracy), oligarchic (oligarchy), and democratic (democracy).

3 To study governments, geographers look at the following:
Types – Who rules and who participates. Systems – How the power is distributed.

4 TYPES of Government are based on one key question: Who governs & how does the citizen participate?
There are three types of governments: Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy

5 Autocracy Government in which the power to govern is held by one person. Generally the power to rule is inherited or held by military force. There are three types of an Autocracy.

6 #1 Dictatorship The leader has not been elected and uses force to control all aspects of social and economic life; citizens (people) have few (if any) rights. Examples: Adolf Hitler in Germany and Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union

7 #2 Absolute Monarchy A monarchy has a king, queen, emperor or empress.
The power is usually inherited or passed down from family members. The monarch has absolute power meaning they can make all decisions without consulting anyone. Example: Saudi Arabia

8 #3 Constitutional Monarchy
Kings, queens or emperors share power with elected legislatures. Generally the Kings are nothing more than figureheads. The government is a democratic one that limits the monarchs power. Example: Great Britain

9 Autocracy

10 Oligarchy A government in which a few people such as a dominant clan or clique have power. The group gets their power from either military, wealth or social status. Elections may be held but offer only one candidate. Examples: Greek city-states; theocracy= a government ruled by religious leaders(s), ex. Iran

11 Oligarchy

12 Democracy In a democracy, the government is “Ruled by the people”
There are two forms of democracies Direct Democracy – Citizens (people) vote on all the issues. Representative Democracy – Citizens elect representatives and give them the power to vote on issues. Example: United States

13 Democracy

14 How Citizens Participate in Government

15 In a democracy…. Individual freedom and equality is valued
Free elections are held Decisions are based on majority rule All candidates can express their views freely Citizens vote by secret ballot

16 Democratic Governments
Government where citizens elect representatives; citizens are involved through their representatives (voting) Republic Presidential Democracy Parliamentary Democracy There are two major forms of representative democracies: Parliamentary Presidential

17 Parliamentary Democracy
Voters elect members to the Parliament (legislature) Parliament (legislature) has two Houses: House of Commons: The Political Party with the most votes in the House of Commons chooses the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is the government’s leader who has no set length of term. House of Lords: Little power with most members being nobles who have inherited their titles

18 Parliamentary Democracy
Executive power is held by members of the legislature; (executive + legislative = one branch of government) Prime minister (leader/chief of state), is elected by the legislature, NOT by the people Head of state (ex. king or queen) has a ceremonial role, but the chief of state usually has the power  2 separate people Example: Israel

19 Presidential Democracy
Voters elect legislators Voters elect (indirectly) the president. Therefore, in the presidential system voters have a more direct say about those who serve in two branches of the government : Legislative Executive

20 Presidential Democracy
The president and legislature are separate branches of government and powers are divided between them President is head of state and chief of state = ceremonial duties (role) + power President is limited to two 4-year terms Example: United States

21 Parliamentary System Presidential System
Executive Executive Legislative Select Elect Elect Legislative Elect Citizens Citizens

22 SS7CG4a Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal

23 Systems of Government are based on one question: How is the power distributed?
There are three ways governments distribute power: Unitary Confederation Federal

24 Unitary One central authority/government controls everything.
Power is not shared between states, counties, or provinces. Examples: United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Spain

25 Unitary Government Unitary System
Regional Authority Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority Regional Authority

26 Confederation A voluntary association of independent states that agrees to follow a powerful central government. Nations can choose to follow or not follow the lead of the weak central government. Do not last very long; very weak and unstable Examples: Confederate States of America ( ); European Union.

27 Confederation Regional Regional Regional Regional Central Authority

28 Federal Power is shared by a powerful central government.
States or provinces are given considerable self rule, usually through their own legislatures. Examples: United States, Germany

29 Federation Federal Government Federal System
Regional Authority Regional Authority Central Authority Regional Authority Regional Authority

30 Putting it all together….
The United Kingdom is an autocratic constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and a unitary system. The United States is a presidential democracy with a federal system. What do those statements mean?

31 What do you remember? What are the three types of governments?
What are the three systems of government?

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