Presentation on theme: "Unit 2 Myths and Legends. A myth is a sacred story from the past. It may explain the origin of the universe and of life, or it may express its culture's."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2 Myths and Legends
A myth is a sacred story from the past. It may explain the origin of the universe and of life, or it may express its culture's moral values in human terms. Myths concern the powers who control the human world and the relationship between those powers and human beings. Although myths are religious in their origin and function, they may also be the earliest form of history, science, or philosophy... e. g. Jing Wei Tian Hai ( 精卫填海 ） What is a Myth
What is a Legend A legend is a story from the past about a subject that was, or is believed to have been, historical. Legends concern people, places, and events. Usually, the subject is a saint, a king, a hero, a famous person, or a war. A legend is always associated with a particular place and a particular time in history. e. g.: The Knights of the Round Table
What is a Fable A fable is a short, pithy animal tale, most often told or written with a moral tagged on in the form of a proverb. Thus to convey a moral is the aim of most fables, and the tale is the vehicle by which this is done, providing both an illustration of and compelling argument for the moral. e. g.: Aesopian ’ s Fables ( 伊索寓言）
Differences among Myth, Legend and Fable Myth a traditional story of gods or heroes which tries to explain natural or historical events Legend a traditional story based on truth but which has had bits added Fable a short story which has been written to give a message
Chinese Mythology Chinese mythical stories are entwined with history. The history of the long period before recorded history began is partly based on legend, which is interwoven with mythology. Ancient heroes and leaders are both historical figures according to legends and important characters in mythical stories. So ancient mythology was to a great extent made historical. On the other hand, ancient history was to a certain extent made mythical. Chinese mythical stories usually sing the praise of labor and creation, extol perseverance and self-sacrifice, praise rebellion against oppression, eulogize the yearning for true love and encourage good deeds and warn against sin.
Pangu Separate the Sky from the earth Nuwa Makes Men Nuwa Mends the Sky Jingwei Determines to Fill up the Sea Kuafu Chases the Sun Yugong Removes the Mountain The Cowherd and The Weaving Girl Chang’er Flies to The Moon 开天辟地 女娲造天 女娲补天 精卫填海 夸父追日 愚公移山 牛郎织女 嫦娥奔月 Some Chinese mythologies are :
Oral Practice I Who are they? Oral Practice I Who are they? In every culture, there are some myths and classic tales whose appeal never fades, especially those beloved characters will always exist in people’s minds. Look at the pictures of six immortal characters. Discuss in groups about their names and stories.
Click the picture to get the answer Who are they?
CHANG'E FLIES TO THE MOON ( 嫦娥奔月 ) Chang’e, a lady graceful of carriage and unparalleled of beauty, very much loved by her husband--Houyi. One day, when Houyi was out, Chang'e secretly swallowed the potion in the hope that she would become immortal. The result was quite unexpected: she felt herself becoming light, so light that she flew up in spite of herself, drifting and floating in the air, until she reached the palace of the moon.
Oral Practice II Chinese Fables Oral Practice II Chinese Fables China is a country rich in fables such as “Qi Ren You Tian”(The Worrier of Qi) and “Hua She Tian Zu” (The “Finishing” Touch). Watch a silent video of a popular Chinese fable and produce an aside for it.
His Spear Against His Shield In the state of Chu there was a man who had a spear and a shield for sale. He was loud in praises of his shield. “My shield is so strong that nothing can pierce it through.” He also sang praises of his spear. “My spear is so strong that it can pierce through anything.” “What would happen,” he was asked, “if your spear is used to pierce your shield?” He was unable to give an answer. Moral: It is impossible for an impenetrable shield to coexist with a spear that finds nothing impenetrable. Model
Oral Practice III Can you recognize all of them?
Aphrodite (Venus) the goddess of love, beauty and fertility She was also a protectress of sailors. Sacred objects: dove, goose, sparrow, myrtle
Apollo(Apollo) Sacred objects: crow, dolphin, laurel, lyre the god of prophesy, music and healing
Athena(Minerva) the goddess of crafts and the domestic arts and also those of war. She was the patron goddess of Athens. Her symbol was the owl. Sacred objects: owl, shield, olive tree
Sacred objects: vulture, dog Ares(Mars) the god of war, or more precisely of warlike frenzy
Zeus(Jupiter) the supreme god of the Olympians. He was the father of the heroes Perseus and Heracles. Sacred objects: eagle, thunder belt, shield, oak tree
Sacred objects: trident, horse, bull Poseidon (Neptune) the god of the sea, earthquake and horses Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain.
Sacred objects: stag, crescent moon, cypress, deer Artemis (Diana) the virgin goddess of the hunt She helped women in childbirth but also brought sudden death with her arrows.
Listening Exercise Aesop’s Fables. The following story is one of the fables from Aesop’s Fables. Listen and find out the moral.
Aesop’s Fables Directions: Listen to the fable and find out the moral.
The goose with the golden eggs One morning a countryman went to his goose's nest, and saw a yellow and glittering egg there. He took the egg home. To his delight, he found that it was an egg of pure gold. Every morning the same thing occurred, and he soon became rich by selling his eggs. The countryman became more and more greedy. He wanted to get all the gold at once, so he killed the goose, when he looked inside, he found nothing in its body. Moral: If one is too greedy, he would get nothing in return. Script
Unit 2 In-Class Reading Why the Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth
1. What characteristics come to your mind when you think of a tortoise? Pre-reading Questions Usually a tortoise does not have a good reputation. A tortoise is very slow, very foolish. It is ugly but it has a long life. It is often the symbol of longevity. But we have a story named Tortoise and Hare, which depicts the tortoise as clever and determined. In the story, the tortoise has a race with the hare. Even though the hare runs much faster than the tortoise, the tortoise does not give up and finally wins the race because the hare is too proud and takes a nap while the tortoise is crawling along.
2. Can you guess why the shell of the tortoise is not smooth? Give a brief explanation. I think his shell was smashed by something very hard. One day he was so hungry that he wanted to get into a castle to find some food. The place was very dangerous and because it was at night, he didn’t see that there were some traps. When he was approaching a piece of pig’s liver, which he liked very much, a big iron bar fell off and hit him. His shell was broken into pieces. Some kind-hearted mice brought him to a witch, who mended his shell. Answer1
Organization Analysis Para.1 — Para. 8 the beginning Tortoise got two wings to attend the feast in the heaven. Para. 9 — Para. 11 the development On the great day they went to the feast, the tortoise took a new name “ All of You”. 1-5 A tortoise wanted to join the birds feast in the sky but he had no wings. 6-8 Tortoise finally persuaded every bird to lend him a feather with which he made two wings.
Organization Analysis Para.12 — Para.18 climax Tortoise’s behavior at the party aroused birds’ anger and he was unable to return to his home At the party, people of the sky told them the food is for all of you. Thus the tortoise took the chance to be served first The angry birds took back the feather they lent to the tortoise and only Parrot promised to take a message to his wife.
Organization Analysis Para. 19 — Para. 21 the end Because of the wrong message, tortoise’s shell broke into pieces Parrot told his wife to take out all the hard things in the house instead of the soft ones. 21 The great medicine man helped to stuck his bits of shell together.
Read the passage Why the Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth and try to answer the following questions.
1. Why were the birds very happy? Because they were invited to a feast in the sky. 2. How did tortoise know about the birds’ activity? He saw the birds were busy preparing. 3. What was tortoise ’ s plan? He planned to go to the feast with the birds.
4. What was the birds ’ reaction when they knew the tortoise ’ s plan? They didn’t agree because tortoise was mischievous / cunning and ungrateful. 5. How was tortoise able to convince the birds? With a sweet tongue, he convinced the birds that he was a changed man. 6. How did tortoise go to the sky? He made two wings with all the feathers he got from each bird.
7. What ’ s the new name tortoise chose for himself on the way to the sky? All of you. 8. What did the people in the sky served them? Nuts, meat and fish soup, pounded yam, yam soup, palm wine etc. 9. What question did tortoise ask when they were invited to eat? For whom have you prepared this feast?
10. Why did he ask this question? Because he knew the answer would be “for all of you”, which was his new name, so he could enjoy all the food first. 11. What did the birds do to revenge themselves on tortoise? They took back the feathers they had lent him. 12. What did tortoise ask the birds to do when they were leaving? He asked them to take a message to his wife.
13. Who suddenly agreed to do the job, and why? Parrot, because he wanted to take advantage of the chance to get revenge. 14. What was tortoise ’ s message and what was actually delivered? He asked the parrot to tell his wife to bring out all the soft things in his house and cover the ground with them so that he he could be able to land safely. But parrot told his wife to bring out all the hard and sharp things instead.
His shell was broken into hundreds of pieces. 15. What happened to tortoise when he finally landed on the ground?
Finding the Best Summary Work in pairs to summarize the story and then volunteer to read your summary to the class. After that, comment on the summaries and vote for the best one.
Ekwefi is telling about tortoise. Long long ago, there was a ________, and all the birds got an invitation from the sky to attend a ______ there. Tortoise learned about it and with his sweet ______ he persuaded the birds to take him with them and so each bird lent him a ______. Tortoise cunningly thought of an idea that enabled him to have all the food by naming himself “_______”. When they reached the sky, they received a warm ______ and soon the food was presented to them.
Then he asked one of the people in the sky: “For whom have you prepared all this feast?” The man replied: “For all of you.” So he ate almost all the _______. The birds became very _____ and took back their ______ before flying home. Without feathers, he had to jump onto the ground and his _____ was broken into pieces.
Ekwefi is telling about tortoise. Long long ago, there was a famine, and all the birds got an invitation from the sky to attend a feast there. Tortoise learned about it and with his sweet tongue he persuaded the birds to take him with them and so each bird lent him a feather. Tortoise cunningly thought of an idea that enabled him to have all the food by naming himself “All of you”. When they reached the sky, they received a warm welcome and soon the food was presented to them.
Then he asked one of the people in the sky: “For whom have you prepared all this feast?” The man replied: “For all of you.” So he ate almost all the best food. The birds became very angry and took back their feathers before flying home. Without feathers, he had to jump onto the ground and his shell was broken into pieces.
feast feast (Line 6, Para. 2) n. 1) a large meal, especially one for a special occasion 盛宴 2) a day kept in memory of a religious event （宗教的）节日 v. [+ on] eat and drink a lot on a special occasion 尽情地吃喝，饱餐
圣诞节是基督教的一个重要。 圣诞节是基督教的一个重要节日。 为了向来访的总统表示敬意，厨师长准备了。 为了向来访的总统表示敬意，厨师长准备了盛宴。 The chef _____________ in honor of the president’s visit. Christmas is ________________ for Christians. TranslationTranslation 他了落日美景。 他饱览了落日美景。 He ______________ on the beautiful sight of sunset. 请完成下面的句子。 an important feastfeast prepared a feast feasted his eyes
itch v. ( para. 3 line 12) have an unpleasant feeling on the skin that makes you want to scratch 痒，发痒 1) The label on this shirt itches me. 2) The worst thing about a mosquito bite is the way it itches. itch for sth/to do sth (infml) restless desire or longing 热望，渴望 She can ’ t resist the itch to travel. Word Study
mischief (n.) (Line 20, Para. 6) playful misbehavior or trouble- making, especially in children 顽皮；捣蛋；恶作剧 mischievous mischievous (adj.) 调皮的；恶作剧的 告诉孩子们。 告诉孩子们别胡闹。 他需要一个爱好来使自己忙起来并且停止。 他需要一个爱好来使自己忙起来并且停止搞恶作剧。 He needs a hobby to keep him busy and stop him from getting into mischief. Tell the children to keep out of mischief. TranslationTranslation
你可以，我们一定尽力而为。 你可以放心，我们一定尽力而为。 请，一切都正常。 请放心，一切都正常。 Rest assured that everything is under control. You can rest assured that we will do all we can. TranslationTranslation rest assured rest assured (Line 24, Para. 7) not to worry or be certain 请放心；请确信 ( 无疑 ) （常用于祈使句）
eloquent eloquent (adj.) (Line 46, Para. 12) fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing 雄辩的，有说服力的； 清楚表明的 苏珊在她的毕业课上做了演讲。 苏珊在她的毕业课上做了动人的演讲。 Her enthusiasm made her quite eloquent. 她的热情使她讲起话来很是。 她的热情使她讲起话来很是流利。 Susan gave an eloquent speech to her graduating class. TranslationTranslation 反义词： tongue-tied
他不是果敢地去面对困难，而是自己运气不佳。 他不是果敢地去面对困难，而是抱怨自己运气不佳。 火车起动了。 火车轰隆一声起动了。 The train ___________ motion. He _________________ instead of resolutely facing his difficulties. TranslationTranslation grumble grumble (v.) (Line 62, Para. 16) 1) (+ about/at/over) speak with a low, indistinct, and possibly complaining voice 咕哝，嘟囔，发牢骚 近义词： complain ， mutter 2) rumble 发轰轰声 请完成下面的句子。 grumbles at his luck grumbled into
1)take something (to someone or some place) 送递 2) (for a woman) give birth to a baby 生产 3) give a speech; read something out loud 演讲 deliver deliver (v.) (Line 76, Para. 19)
我们公司会上门。 我们公司会送货上门。 安娜一对健康的双胞胎。 安娜生了一对健康的双胞胎。 Anna delivered a healthy set of twins. Our company will deliver your order to your door.deliver TranslationTranslation 她一场关于社会哲学的演讲。 她做了一场关于社会哲学的演讲。 She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society.
Unit 2 Word Study
Fill in the blanks with the words you have learned in unit 2 1.The employees are all ______ about the company’s refusal to increase their pay. 2.She ______ a talk on philosophy to the society. 3.She made an ______ appeal for support for the strike. 4.Tell the children to keep out of ________. 5.Another crop failure could result in widespread _____________. 6.________, I promise I will not cause you any trouble.
1.The employees are all grumbling about the company’s refusal to increase their pay. 2.She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society. 3.She made an eloquent appeal for support for the strike. 4.Tell the children to keep out of mischief. 5.Another crop failure could result in widespread famine. 6.Rest assured, I promise I will not cause you any trouble.
Nothing ever escapes his notice. His throat began to itch at the very thought of the great feast in the sky. He was full of cunning. 任何事都逃不过他的眼睛。 一想到天上的盛宴，他不禁垂涎三尺。 他狡黠无比，诡计多端。 We know you of old. 我们老早就把你看透了。 / 我了解你可不是一天 两天了。
She has a sweet tongue. the age-old custom 她巧舌如簧。 / 她能说会道。 古老的习俗 a widely traveled man 一个游历甚广的人 to go home on an empty stomach 饿着肚子回家
After-class Reading Beauty and the Beast
Whatever the explanation, stories that have been told and cherished for countless generations are bound to be good. “Cinderella”, “Snow White”, “the Monkey King”may accompany us every night and make our childhood memory more precious. Of all the bedtime stories, I would like you to enjoy the most romantic one — “Beauty and the Beast” Bedtime Stories
Beauty and the Beast Click to stop and click again to continue
Pre-Reading Questions 1. Do you know the Disney cartoon “ Beauty and the Beast ” ? How much do you know about it? Yes, that is one of my favorites. It is about a beautiful girl named Beauty who was closed in a castle by a monster because she had to save her father. After spending days in the castle with the monster, she fell in love with the ugly monster and the moment she kissed the monster, the beast turned into a prince. It is quite like a Cinderella’s tale.
Organization Analysis PartPara.Narrative Stage Part I para.1 Part II para.2-3 Part III para.4-6 Part IV para.7-17 Part V para.18 Background information Beginning Development Suspense Climax and the end
Organization Analysis Part I (para. 1) Background information Beauty who was beautiful and sweet was the daughter of a wealthy merchant. Part II (para. 2-3) Beginning For the loss of all his money, the merchant ’ s family lived in poverty. When news about his lost ships came, beauty ’ s father left for them and Beauty asked for a rose as the gift.
Organization Analysis Part III (para. 4-6) Development Though failing to regain his fortune, on his way home, the merchant still tried to pick up a rose from the garden of a mansion. The very action annoyed the monster of the building. Beauty was required to take her father ’ s place in order to save him. Part IV (para. 7-17) Suspense Out of Beauty ’ s expectation, she lived in harmony with the monster in the mansion. And she asked to go home to visit her father and was permitted.
Organization Analysis Part V (para. 18) Climax and end When Beauty returned to the mansion, she found the dying monster. As she cried and hugged him, the monster turned into a prince.
Main Points Beauty, who was beautiful and sweet, was the daughter of a wealthy merchant. But after her father lost his money, they lived in poverty. One day the father went to regain his fortune and on his way back, he annoyed a beast who required the presence of Beauty. Beauty had to live together with the monster. Finally Beauty was moved by the beast ’ s kindness and showed her love. At the moment this happened, the beast turned into a prince. It ’ s Beauty who put an end to the horrible spell that had been cast over him.