2 What is a MythA myth is a sacred story from the past. It may explain the origin of the universe and of life, or it may express its culture's moral values in human terms. Myths concern the powers who control the human world and the relationship between those powers and human beings. Although myths are religious in their origin and function, they may also be the earliest form of history, science, or philosophy... e. g. Jing Wei Tian Hai (精卫填海）
3 What is a LegendA legend is a story from the past about a subject that was, or is believed to have been, historical. Legends concern people, places, and events. Usually, the subject is a saint, a king, a hero, a famous person, or a war. A legend is always associated with a particular place and a particular time in history. e. g.: The Knights of the Round Table
4 What is a FableA fable is a short, pithy animal tale, most often told or written with a moral tagged on in the form of a proverb. Thus to convey a moral is the aim of most fables, and the tale is the vehicle by which this is done, providing both an illustration of and compelling argument for the moral. e. g.: Aesopian’s Fables (伊索寓言）
5 Differences among Myth, Legend and Fable a traditional story of gods or heroes which tries to explain natural or historical eventsLegenda traditional story based on truth but which has had bits addedFablea short story which has been written to give a message
6 Chinese MythologyChinese mythical stories are entwined with history. The history of the long period before recorded history began is partly based on legend, which is interwoven with mythology. Ancient heroes and leaders are both historical figures according to legends and important characters in mythical stories. So ancient mythology was to a great extent made historical. On the other hand, ancient history was to a certain extent made mythical. Chinese mythical stories usually sing the praise of labor and creation, extol perseverance and self-sacrifice, praise rebellion against oppression, eulogize the yearning for true love and encourage good deeds and warn against sin.
7 Some Chinese mythologies are: Pangu Separate the Sky from the earthNuwa Makes MenNuwa Mends the SkyJingwei Determines to Fill up the SeaKuafu Chases the SunYugong Removes the MountainThe Cowherd and The Weaving GirlChang’er Flies to The Moon开天辟地女娲造天女娲补天精卫填海夸父追日愚公移山牛郎织女嫦娥奔月
8 Oral Practice I Who are they? In every culture, there are some myths and classic tales whose appeal never fades, especially those beloved characters will always exist in people’s minds. Look at the pictures of six immortal characters. Discuss in groups about their names and stories.
9 Who are they?Click the picture to get the answer
10 CHANG'E FLIES TO THE MOON (嫦娥奔月) Chang’e, a lady graceful of carriage and unparalleled of beauty, very much loved by her husband--Houyi. One day, when Houyi was out, Chang'e secretly swallowed the potion in the hope that she would become immortal. The result was quite unexpected: she felt herself becoming light, so light that she flew up in spite of herself, drifting and floating in the air, until she reached the palace of the moon.
11 Oral Practice II Chinese Fables China is a country rich in fables such as “Qi Ren You Tian”(The Worrier of Qi) and “Hua She Tian Zu” (The “Finishing” Touch). Watch a silent video of a popular Chinese fable and produce an aside for it.
13 His Spear Against His Shield ModelIn the state of Chu there was a man who had a spear and a shield for sale. He was loud in praises of his shield.“My shield is so strong that nothing can pierce it through.”He also sang praises of his spear.“My spear is so strong that it can pierce through anything.”“What would happen,” he was asked, “if your spear is used to pierce your shield?”He was unable to give an answer.Moral: It is impossible for an impenetrable shieldto coexist with a spear that finds nothing impenetrable.
14 Oral Practice III Can you recognize all of them?
15 Aphrodite (Venus) the goddess of love, beauty and fertility She was also a protectress of sailors.Sacred objects: dove, goose, sparrow, myrtle
16 Apollo(Apollo) the god of prophesy, music and healing Sacred objects: crow, dolphin, laurel, lyre
17 Athena(Minerva)the goddess of crafts and the domestic arts and also those of war. She was the patron goddess of Athens. Her symbol was the owl.Sacred objects:owl, shield, olive tree
18 Ares(Mars) the god of war, or more precisely of warlike frenzy Sacred objects:vulture, dog
19 Zeus(Jupiter) the supreme god of the Olympians. He was the father of the heroes Perseus and Heracles.Sacred objects:eagle, thunder belt, shield, oak tree
20 Poseidon (Neptune) the god of the sea, earthquake and horses Although he was officially one of the supreme gods of Mount Olympus, he spent most of his time in his watery domain.Sacred objects:trident, horse, bull
21 Artemis (Diana) the virgin goddess of the hunt She helped women in childbirth but also brought sudden death with her arrows.Sacred objects:stag, crescent moon,cypress, deer
22 Listening ExerciseThe following story is one of the fables from Aesop’s Fables. Listen and find out the moral.
23 Aesop’s FablesDirections:Listen to the fable and find out the moral.
24 The goose with the golden eggs Script One morning a countryman went to his goose's nest, and saw a yellow and glittering egg there.He took the egg home. To his delight, he found that it was an egg of pure gold. Every morning the same thing occurred, and he soon became rich by selling his eggs. The countryman became more and more greedy. He wanted to get all the gold at once, so he killed the goose, when he looked inside, he found nothing in its body.Moral: If one is too greedy, he would get nothing in return.
25 Unit 2In-Class ReadingWhy the Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth
26 Pre-reading Questions 1. What characteristics come to your mind when you think of a tortoise?Usually a tortoise does not have a good reputation. A tortoise is very slow, very foolish. It is ugly but it has a long life. It is often the symbol of longevity.But we have a story named Tortoise and Hare, which depicts the tortoise as clever and determined. In the story, the tortoise has a race with the hare. Even though the hare runs much faster than the tortoise, the tortoise does not give up and finally wins the race because the hare is too proud and takes a nap while the tortoise is crawling along.
27 2. Can you guess why the shell of the tortoise is not smooth 2. Can you guess why the shell of the tortoise is not smooth? Give a brief explanation.Answer1I think his shell was smashed by something very hard. One day he was so hungry that he wanted to get into a castle to find some food. The place was very dangerous and because it was at night, he didn’t see that there were some traps. When he was approaching a piece of pig’s liver, which he liked very much, a big iron bar fell off and hit him. His shell was broken into pieces. Some kind-hearted mice brought him to a witch, who mended his shell.
28 Organization Analysis Para.1 — Para. 8 the beginningTortoise got two wings to attend the feast in the heaven.1-5 A tortoise wanted to join the birds feast in the sky but he had no wings.6-8 Tortoise finally persuaded every bird to lend him a feather with which he made two wings.Para. 9 — Para. 11 the developmentOn the great day they went to the feast, the tortoise took a new name “ All of You”.
29 Organization Analysis Para.12 — Para.18 climaxTortoise’s behavior at the party aroused birds’ anger and he was unable to return to his home.12-16 At the party, people of the sky told them the food is for all of you. Thus the tortoise took the chance to be served first.17-18 The angry birds took back the feather they lent to the tortoise and only Parrot promised to take a message to his wife.
30 Organization Analysis Para. 19 — Para. 21 the endBecause of the wrong message, tortoise’s shell broke into pieces.19-20 Parrot told his wife to take out all the hard things in the house instead of the soft ones.21 The great medicine man helped to stuck his bits of shell together.
31 and try to answer the following questions. Read the passageWhy the Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smoothand try to answer the followingquestions.
32 1. Why were the birds very happy? Because they were invited to a feast in the sky.2. How did tortoise know about the birds’ activity?He saw the birds were busy preparing.3. What was tortoise’s plan?He planned to go to the feast with the birds.
33 4.What was the birds’ reaction when they knew the tortoise’s plan? They didn’t agree because tortoise was mischievous / cunning and ungrateful.5. How was tortoise able to convince the birds?With a sweet tongue, he convinced the birds that he was a changed man.6. How did tortoise go to the sky?He made two wings with all the feathers he got from each bird.
34 7. What’s the new name tortoise chose for himself on the way to the sky? All of you.8. What did the people in the sky served them?Nuts, meat and fish soup, pounded yam, yam soup, palm wine etc.9. What question did tortoise ask when they were invited to eat?For whom have you prepared this feast?
35 10. Why did he ask this question? Because he knew the answer would be “for all of you”, which was his new name, so he could enjoy all the food first.11. What did the birds do to revenge themselves on tortoise?They took back the feathers they had lent him.12. What did tortoise ask the birds to do when they were leaving?He asked them to take a message to his wife.
36 13. Who suddenly agreed to do the job, and why? Parrot, because he wanted to take advantage of the chance to get revenge.14. What was tortoise’s message and what was actually delivered?He asked the parrot to tell his wife to bring out all the soft things in his house and cover the ground with them so that he he could be able to land safely. But parrot told his wife to bring out all the hard and sharp things instead.
37 15. What happened to tortoise when he finally landed on the ground? His shell was broken into hundreds of pieces.
38 Finding the Best Summary Work in pairs to summarize the story and then volunteer to read your summary to the class. After that, comment on the summaries and vote for the best one.
39 Ekwefi is telling about tortoise Ekwefi is telling about tortoise. Long long ago, there was a ________, and all the birds got an invitation from the sky to attend a ______ there. Tortoise learned about it and with his sweet ______ he persuaded the birds to take him with them and so each bird lent him a ______. Tortoise cunningly thought of an idea that enabled him to have all the food by naming himself “_______”. When they reached the sky, they received a warm ______ and soon the food was presented to them.
40 Then he asked one of the people in the sky: “For whom have you prepared all this feast?” The man replied: “For all of you.” So he ate almost all the _______. The birds became very _____ and took back their ______ before flying home. Without feathers, he had to jump onto the ground and his _____ was broken into pieces.
41 Ekwefi is telling about tortoise Ekwefi is telling about tortoise. Long long ago, there was a famine, and all the birds got an invitation from the sky to attend a feast there. Tortoise learned about it and with his sweet tongue he persuaded the birds to take him with them and so each bird lent him a feather. Tortoise cunningly thought of an idea that enabled him to have all the food by naming himself “All of you”. When they reached the sky, they received a warm welcome and soon the food was presented to them.
42 Then he asked one of the people in the sky: “For whom have you prepared all this feast?” The man replied: “For all of you.” So he ate almost all the best food. The birds became very angry and took back their feathers before flying home. Without feathers, he had to jump onto the ground and his shell was broken into pieces.
44 2) a day kept in memory of a feast (Line 6, Para. 2)n. 1) a large meal, especially one fora special occasion 盛宴2) a day kept in memory of areligious event（宗教的）节日v. [+ on] eat and drink a lot on aspecial occasion 尽情地吃喝，饱餐
45 Christmas is ________________ for Christians. an important feast Translation请完成下面的句子。圣诞节是基督教的一个重要节日。Christmas is ________________ for Christians.an important feast为了向来访的总统表示敬意，厨师长准备了盛宴。The chef _____________ in honor of the president’s visit.prepared a feast他饱览了落日美景。He ______________ on the beautiful sight ofsunset.feasted his eyes
46 itch for sth/to do sth (infml) Word Studyitch v. ( para. 3 line 12)have an unpleasant feeling on the skin that makes you want to scratch 痒，发痒1) The label on this shirt itches me.2) The worst thing about a mosquito bite is the way it itches.itch for sth/to do sth (infml)restless desire or longing 热望，渴望She can’t resist the itch to travel.
47 playful misbehavior or trouble- 顽皮；捣蛋；恶作剧 mischief (n.) (Line 20, Para. 6)playful misbehavior or trouble-making, especially in children顽皮；捣蛋；恶作剧mischievous (adj.) 调皮的；恶作剧的Translation告诉孩子们别胡闹。Tell the children to keep out of mischief.他需要一个爱好来使自己忙起来并且停止搞恶作剧。He needs a hobby to keep him busy and stop him from getting into mischief.
48 You can rest assured that we will do all we can. rest assured (Line 24, Para. 7)not to worry or be certain请放心；请确信(无疑) （常用于祈使句）Translation你可以放心，我们一定尽力而为。You can rest assured that we will do all we can.请放心，一切都正常。Rest assured that everything is under control.
49 fluent or persuasive in speaking eloquent (adj.) (Line 46, Para. 12)fluent or persuasive in speakingor writing 雄辩的，有说服力的；清楚表明的Translation苏珊在她的毕业课上做了动人的演讲。Susan gave an eloquent speech to her graduating class.Her enthusiasm made her quite eloquent.她的热情使她讲起话来很是流利。反义词：tongue-tied
50 1) (+ about/at/over) speak with a low, grumble (v.) (Line 62, Para. 16)1) (+ about/at/over) speak with a low,indistinct, and possibly complainingvoice 咕哝，嘟囔，发牢骚近义词：complain，mutter2) rumble 发轰轰声Translation请完成下面的句子。他不是果敢地去面对困难，而是抱怨自己运气不佳。He _________________instead of resolutely facinghis difficulties.grumbles at his luck火车轰隆一声起动了。The train ___________ motion.grumbled into
51 2) (for a woman) give birth to a baby 生产 deliver (v.) (Line 76, Para. 19)take something (to someone orsome place) 送递2) (for a woman) give birth to a baby 生产3) give a speech; read something out loud 演讲
52 Our company will deliver your order to your door. Translation我们公司会送货上门。Our company will deliver your order to your door.安娜生了一对健康的双胞胎。Anna delivered a healthy set of twins.她做了一场关于社会哲学的演讲。She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society.
54 Fill in the blanks with the words you have learned in unit 2 The employees are all ______ about the company’s refusal to increase their pay.She ______ a talk on philosophy to the society.She made an ______ appeal for support for the strike.Tell the children to keep out of ________.Another crop failure could result in widespread _____________.________, I promise I will not cause you any trouble.
55 The employees are all grumbling about the company’s refusal to increase their pay. She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society.She made an eloquent appeal for support for the strike.Tell the children to keep out of mischief.Another crop failure could result in widespread famine.Rest assured, I promise I will not cause you any trouble.
57 Nothing ever escapes his notice. 任何事都逃不过他的眼睛。Nothing ever escapes his notice.他狡黠无比，诡计多端。He was full of cunning.一想到天上的盛宴，他不禁垂涎三尺。His throat began to itch at the very thought of the great feast in the sky.我们老早就把你看透了。/ 我了解你可不是一天两天了。We know you of old.
58 to go home on an empty stomach 她巧舌如簧。 / 她能说会道。She has a sweet tongue.古老的习俗the age-old custom一个游历甚广的人a widely traveled man饿着肚子回家to go home on an empty stomach
60 Bedtime StoriesWhatever the explanation, stories that have been told and cherished for countless generations are bound to be good. “Cinderella”, “Snow White”, “the Monkey King”may accompany us every night and make our childhood memory more precious. Of all the bedtime stories, I would like you to enjoy the most romantic one — “Beauty and the Beast”
61 Beauty and the BeastClick to stop and click again to continue
62 Pre-Reading Questions 1. Do you know the Disney cartoon “Beauty and the Beast”? How much do you know about it?Yes, that is one of my favorites. It is about a beautiful girl named Beauty who was closed in a castle by a monster because she had to save her father. After spending days in the castle with the monster, she fell in love with the ugly monster and the moment she kissed the monster, the beast turned into a prince. It is quite like a Cinderella’s tale.
63 Part Para. Narrative Stage Organization AnalysisPartPara.Narrative StagePart Ipara.1Part IIpara.2-3Part IIIpara.4-6Part IVpara.7-17Part Vpara.18Background informationBeginningDevelopmentSuspenseClimax and the end
64 Organization Analysis Part I (para. 1) Background informationBeauty who was beautiful and sweet was the daughter of a wealthy merchant.Part II (para. 2-3) BeginningFor the loss of all his money, the merchant’s family lived in poverty. When news about his lost ships came, beauty’s father left for them and Beauty asked for a rose as the gift.
65 Organization Analysis Part III (para. 4-6) DevelopmentThough failing to regain his fortune, on his way home, the merchant still tried to pick up a rose from the garden of a mansion. The very action annoyed the monster of the building. Beauty was required to take her father’s place in order to save him.Part IV (para. 7-17) SuspenseOut of Beauty’s expectation, she lived in harmony with the monster in the mansion. And she asked to go home to visit her father and was permitted.
66 Organization Analysis Part V (para. 18) Climax and endWhen Beauty returned to the mansion, she found the dying monster. As she cried and hugged him, the monster turned into a prince.
67 Main PointsBeauty, who was beautiful and sweet, was the daughter of a wealthy merchant. But after her father lost his money, they lived in poverty. One day the father went to regain his fortune and on his way back, he annoyed a beast who required the presence of Beauty. Beauty had to live together with the monster. Finally Beauty was moved by the beast’s kindness and showed her love. At the moment this happened, the beast turned into a prince. It’s Beauty who put an end to the horrible spell that had been cast over him.