Introduction to Textual Analysis2 2 TEXT-TYPE FOCUS EXPOSITION Conceptual exposition Narration Description ARGUMENTATION Through-argumentation Counter-argumentation (thesis cited to be argued through) (thesis cited to be opposed) INSTRUCTION With option Without option e.g. ’advertising’ e.g. ’contracts, treaties’, etc.
Introduction to Textual Analysis3 3 Definitions of exposition Definition of expository text types –Description: differentiation and interrelation of perceptions in space –Narration: differentiation and interrelation of perceptions in time –Exposition: comprehension of general concepts through differentiation by analysis and/or synthesis
Introduction to Textual Analysis4 4 A couple of characteristics of expository texts Scene-setter: tells you where in the universe you are: Scene-setter: outlines where in the universe you are: –This grammar has been tailored to meet the demands of Danish BA students of English, primarily at the Business Schools, but it should be suited for similar levels as well: students of English at universities, teacher training colleges, commercial and technical colleges, etc. –Once upon a time….. –The painting on the wall showed the beautiful skies of…., birds were seen flying…..the trees were green, the little dog in its basket was enjoying…. Expository texts relate ideas/concepts/things/times to each other
Introduction to Textual Analysis5 5 Definitions continued Description uses ’frames’ of knowledge stating what things belong together in principle (e.g. the frame involved in getting from A to B on the Underground). Narration uses ’schemata’ to establish a sequential order for the occurrence of events in terms of time proximity (e.g. narration of a particular journey). Exposition relates concepts and ideas to each other.
Introduction to Textual Analysis6 Narration Relates events to each other in time
Introduction to Textual Analysis7 7 Example of narration Awarnrigurr – The Strangers For many years there were only Aboriginal people living here. They hunted for food and meat for their families. Sometimes they went to the river to spear fish or other creatures. One day, the men went down to the river to spear the fish. As they came to the river, they saw a boat with some strange men in it. The Aboriginal men were frightened so they hid themselves in the bush, waiting for the boat to come. They were standing on the sand talking and they went into the bush…..(story by aboriginal child)
Introduction to Textual Analysis8 8 Narrative features Scene setter Events Time etc
Introduction to Textual Analysis9 9 Description Relates objects to each other in space
Introduction to Textual Analysis10 10 Example of Description Natural Bridge Natural Park Natural Bridge Natural Park is a luscious tropical rainforest. It is located 110 km south of Brisbane and is reached by following the Pacific Highway to Nerang and then by travelling through the Numinbah Valley. This scenic roadway lies in the shadow of the Lamington National Park.
Introduction to Textual Analysis11 11 Conceptual exposition Relates ideas to each other
Introduction to Textual Analysis12 12 Example of Conceptual Exposition In the humanities, taking history as an example, the movement is in the opposite direction. We find a general movement from texts which are situated close to action and could perhaps more accurately be regarded as substitutes for action to texts which are more distant from and interpret action. In history, for instance, the most common genres are for the most part different from those found in technical subjects. Similarly the direction students are taken in is further away from the action and towards interpretation of text.
Introduction to Textual Analysis13 13 Argumentation Argumentation: the evaluation of relations between and among concepts through the extraction of similarities, contrasts, and transformations. A kind of judging with the intent of convincing the reader. Argumentation uses ’plans’ which govern how events and states lead up to the attainment of a goal (e.g. criticising the inefficiency of the Underground system). Argumentation makes use of topic sentences to ’set the tone’ – tone-setter.
Introduction to Textual Analysis14 7 Example of Argumentation Safety in the Workshop Safety in the workshop should be the responsibility of all people who enter it, whether they are visitors or workers. Safety first is not a set of rules, it is a state of mind. Rules help the workers develop a safe attitude to work by drawing to their attention potentially dangerous situations; but in the long run, it is the workers’ actions which cause accidents. It is important that people obey the safety regulations set down, but just as important is the worker’s knowledge of what he or she is doing, what dangers this operation entails, and what should be done to work safely. To aid the reader to work in a safe manner, a safety guide has been appointed and whenever he appears in the book he will bring you advice on how to carry out an operation safely. His name is Mr Safety.
Introduction to Textual Analysis15 Purpose & Characteristics of Text To convince students that some kind of behaviour is necessary. In this case why it is necessary to behave safely in a workshop The text is self-contained; not necessary to look outside text Generic reference: the text refers to any and all workshops, not any particular workshop Nominalisation: safety, responsibility Declarative mood: giving information
Introduction to Textual Analysis16 16 Instruction Instruction: planning of future behaviour
Introduction to Textual Analysis17 17 A few words on the importance of textual analysis ’Linguistic barriers are probably less due to lack of grammatical competence than to the fact that certain speakers are unable to make use of certain text types, either actively or passively’. ….behind the systematic linguistic choices we make, there is inevitably a prior classification of reality in ideological terms.
Introduction to Textual Analysis18 End of lecture 1