Presentation on theme: "Word order typology Holger Diessel University of Jena"— Presentation transcript:
1 Word order typology Holger Diessel University of Jena
2 Basic word order Japanese (1) Taro ga inu o mita Taro SUB dog OBJ saw ‘Taro saw the dog.’SVOKinyarwanda(2) Umugore arasoma igitabowoman 3S-read book‘The woman is reading a book.’SVOVSOWelsh(3) lladdodd y ddraig y dynkilled the dragon the man‘The dragon killed the man.’
3 Basic word order Malagasay (4) Manasa lamba amin’ny savony ny lehilahy washes clothes with.the soap the man‘The man washes clothes with the soap.’VOSHixkaryana(5) toto yahosiye kamaraman it.grabbed.him jaguar‘The jaguar grabbed the man.’OVSOSVUrubú(6) pako xuā u’ubanana John he.ate‘John ate bananas.’
4 Basic word order (1) Peter bought the blue book. SVO (2) *Bought Peter the blue book. VSO(3) *Bought the blue book Peter. VOS(4) *Peter the blue book bought. SOV(5) *The blue book Peter bought. OSV(6) The blue book, Peter bought. OSV(7) Never did Peter buy a book. ADV-AUX-SVO(8) Across the bridge lived an old man. ADV-VS
5 Basic word order Ancient Greek (1) ho didaskal-os paideuei to paidi-on SVOART teacher-NOM teaches ART boy-ACC‘The teacher instructs the boy.’(2) ho didaskal-os to paidi-on paideuei SOV(3) paideuei ho didaskal-os to paidi-on VSO(4) paideuei to paidi-on ho didaskal-os VOS(5) to paidi-on ho didaskal-os paideuei OSV(6) to paidi-on paideuei ho didaskal-os OVS
6 Basic word order What determines the basic word order? It is most frequent.It is structurally and behaviourally unmarked.It occurs in a pragmatically neutral context.
7 Basic word order Walpiri (1) ngarraka-ngku ka wawirri panti-rni SOV man-ERG AUX kangaroo spear-NONPST‘The man is spearing the kangaroo.’(2) wawirri ka panti-rni ngarraka-ngk OVS(3) wawirri ka ngarraka-ngku panti-rni OSV(4) ngarraka-ngku ka panti-rni wawirri SVO(5) panti-rni ka wawirri ngarraka-ngku VOS(6) panti-rni ka ngarraka-ngku wawirri VSO
8 Basic word order Walpiri (1) ngarraka-ngku ka wawirri panti-rni SOV man-ERG AUX kangaroo spear-NONPST‘The man is spearing the kangaroo.’(2) wawirri ka panti-rni ngarraka-ngk OVS(3) wawirri ka ngarraka-ngku panti-rni OSV(4) ngarraka-ngku ka panti-rni wawirri SVO(5) panti-rni ka wawirri ngarraka-ngku VOS(6) panti-rni ka ngarraka-ngku wawirri VSO-> Wackernagel’s law
9 Basic word order Walpiri (1) wawirri kapirna panti-rni yalumpa kangoroo AUX spear-NONPST that‘I will spear the kangaroo.’
10 Basic word order (1) Peter kaufte das blaue Buch. SVO (2) Das blaue Buch kaufte Peter. OVS(3) *Kaufte Peter das blaue Buch. VSO(4) *Kaufte das blaue Buch Peter. VOS(5) *Das blaue Buch Peter kaufte. OSV(6) *Peter das blaue Buch kaufte. SOV(7) Gestern kaufte Peter das blaue Buch. ADV-VSO(8) Peter hat das blaue Buch gekauft. Satzklammer(9) Das blaue Buch hat Peter gekauft.
11 Basic word order Cross-linguistic distribution of basic word order: SVO and SOV are by far the most common word orders.VSO is moderately frequent.All other word orders are rare.
19 Basic word order Dryer 2005 Order Number % SOV SVO VSO VOS OVS OSV 497 435852694474182.50.850.38Total1056100
20 Basic word order Dryer 2005 Tomlin 1986 Order Number % SOV SVO VSO VOS OSV497435852694474182.50.850.3818016837125454231Total1056100402
21 Basic word order The subject tends to precede the object (95%). The object tends to occur next to the verb (91%).
22 Basic word orderOrderS - OSVO SOV VSO VOS OVS OSV+-
23 Basic word orderOrderS - OVO/OVSVO SOV VSO VOS OVS OSV+-
24 Basic word order Order S - O VO/OV Total SVO SOV VSO VOS OVS OSV + - ++
25 Why does the subject tend to precede the object? Basic word order (Dryer 2005)
26 Why does the subject tend to precede verb and object? The subject tends to be the topic.(1) Peter noticed that Sally wasn’t there. She had to attend a class in linguistics.Given/old information helps the hearer to interpret the rest of the utterance, i.e. it provides an orientation at the beginning of the clause.The subject can be seen as a grammaticalized topic.
27 Why does the object tend to be adjacent to the verb? Basic word order (Dryer 2005)
28 Why does the object tend to be adjacent to the verb? Verb and object form a tight conceptual unit.(1) a. They are hunting a fox.b. They are fox-hunting.(2) a. I am taking care of my sister’s baby.b. I am baby-sitting.
29 Word order correlations Based on the ordering of verb and object, languages are commonly divided into two basic word order types: VO-languages and OV-languages.VO OVprepositional postpositionalhead-initial head-finalright-branching left-branchingGreenberg (1966) discovered that the ordering of verb and object correlates with the ordering of other elements in the clause.
31 Prepositions vs. Postpositions (1) EnglishPeter saw the man [in the garden].(2) JapaneseJohn ga [Mary to] [kurma de] [kobe ni] it-taJohn SU Mary with car by Kobe to go.PST‘John went to Kobe by car with Mary.’
39 Word order correlations VOOVPreposition-NounNoun-GenitiveART-NAUX-VSUB-ClauseN-RELMAIN-ADVCOPULA-NP/ADJSentence initial WH wordNoun-PostpositionGenitive-NounN-ARTV-AUXClause-SUBREL-NADV-MAINNP/ADJ-COPULANon-initial WH word
40 Word order correlations English is a VO (or right-branching) language, but:it places the head after the dependent category in the Saxon genitive (e.g. Peter’s car)it employs suffixesit has at least one postposition (= ago)
41 Noun-Relative clause order (1) EnglishThe man [I met].
45 Word order correlations VOOVN-RELREL-N98.51.559.041.0If a language has basic VO order, the relative clause (almost) always follows the head noun.
46 Word order correlations VOOVGEN-NN-GEN32689010If a language has basic OV order, the genitive almost always precedes the head noun.
47 Word order correlations VOOVFinal SUBInitial SUB1.598.56931If a language has basic VO order, the subordinator almost always occur at the beginning of the subordinate clause.
48 Word order correlations VOOVPrepostionsPostpositions8515694If a language has basic VO order, it tends to employ prepositions, and if a language has basic OV order, it tends to employ postpositions.
49 Word order correlations VOOVAUX VV AUX87.512.5892If a language has basic VO order, it tends to place auxiliaries before the main verb, and if a language has basic OV order, it tends to place auxiliaries after the main verb.
50 Word order correlations VOOVART NN ART71284060If a language has basic VO order, it tends to place the article before the noun, and if it has OV order, it tends to place the article after the noun.
51 Explaining word order correlations Implicational universals require an explanation in terms of competing motivations.We have to explain the symmetry in constituent order across languages, i.e. why are there word order correlations?We have to account for the exceptions, i.e. why do VO and OV languages do not pattern consistently?
52 Word order correlations Cross-category harmony: Greenberg’s word order correlations reflect a crosslinguistic tendency to place head and dependent in a consistent order.[W. Lehmann 1972; Vennemann 1972]
53 Word order correlations Cross-category harmony is based on the head-direction parameter.[Frazier 1985]head-initialhead-final
54 Word order correlations Greenberg’s word order correlations are motivated by processing.Languages tend to be consistently right-branching or consistently left-branching rather than mixed left- and right-branching because languages with consistent branching directions are easier to process.[Dryer 1992; Hawkins 1994, 2004]
55 Word order correlations PPPDETA Nin the blue boxRight-branching
56 Word order correlations PPPDETA Nin the blue boxPPPDETN Abox blue the inRight-branchingLeft-branching
57 Word order correlations PPPDETA Nin the blue boxPPPDETN Abox blue the inPPPDETA Nthe blue box inRight-branchingLeft-branchingMixed-branching
58 Processing PPs V PP P NP [played with] an old friend PP V NP P an old friend [with played]
59 Processing PPs V PP NP P [played an old friend with] PP V P NP [with an old friend played]
60 Skewed distributions VO OV N-REL REL-N 98.5 1.5 59.0 41.0 How do we account for implicational universals?
61 Competing motivations The ordering of head and dependentThe ordering of pronoun and antecedent
62 Relative clauses NP V SREL NP NP V [whoi is sleeping] the mani (I)-saw VPNP VSREL NPNP V[whoi is sleeping] the mani (I)-saw
63 Relative clauses NP V SREL NP NP V [whoi is sleeping] the mani (I)-saw VPNP VSREL NPNP V[whoi is sleeping] the mani (I)-sawVPNP VNP SRELNP Vthe mani [whoi is sleeping] (I)-saw
64 Competing motivations Head and dependent are easier to process ifthey are consistently ordered.Pronominal elements are easier to process if theyfollow their antecedent.