3 3. Role of Cabineta. As individuals, responsible for Departments they head: supervise thousands, help Congress draft bills, enforce laws.b. As a group, they are advisory body to President.
4 c. Role reduced since WWII 1. Conflicting Loyalties2. Internal Disputes3. Secrecy/Trust
5 Sec.2A: Executive Office of the President A.EOP provides specialized advice and info to Pres.1. FDR needed help w/ Depression. Reorganization Act of 1939 creating EOP=a personal staff installed in the White House.
7 B. 3 oldest agencies in EOP have played greatest role in presidential decision-making. 1. Office of Management and Budget (OMB)a. Prepares National Budget.
8 2. National Security Council a. Created in 1947 to advise pres. and help coordinate Am military/foreign policy: reaction to Cold War.
9 a. Domestic Policy Council: Long Range Domestic Policies 3. The National Economic Councila. Formulate economic policy. Assesses health, predicts future and proposes solutions.4. Othera. Domestic Policy Council: Long Range Domestic Policiesb. Office of Environmental Policyc. Office of Science and Technology: Spaced. Office of US Trade Representative: NAFTAe. Office of Administration: Day to Day
10 C. White House Office: Pres. Personal Staff 2.Press Secretary, Appointments Sec., legal staff, legislative liaisons, Chief of Staff
12 D. Presidents use different management styles with their staff 1. Pyramid style: Create a hierarchy in terms of access w/ chief of staff as Gatekeeper2. Circular style: Allows for greater accessibility w/ greater numbers.
13 E. Executive Privilege: Right of Presidents to refuse to testify before or provide info to Congress or courts.1. US v. Nixon: not in criminal cases.
14 Sec.1B:Large/Complex Bureaucracy A.The Federal Bureaucracy: Refers to the work of the government.1. Departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, advisory committees.2. Created by Congress, most answer to Pres.3. Constitution provides for indirectly.4. Size 2,000 in 1801 to 3 million today.
15 5. Characteristics:a.hierarchy: order/authority comes from top downb.Elaborate division of labor: specific duties and functionc. Official files and written documents.d. Expertise in area: Monopoly of info.e. Full-time occupation: careerists.f. Rules are essential: standardized.
16 B. Cabinet Departments: 15 Total 1.Department of State: Oldest (1789), advises on F.P., ambassadors negotiate treaties.