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Roli Varma School of Public Administration University of New Mexico Albuquerque, USA.

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Presentation on theme: "Roli Varma School of Public Administration University of New Mexico Albuquerque, USA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Roli Varma School of Public Administration University of New Mexico Albuquerque, USA

2 Background Science and Technology Policy Science and Technology Policy –Women & Minorities in IT Education –Indian Immigrant Scientists/Engineers in the US Workforce.

3 USA Population: Gender & Race/Ethnicity, 2007

4 Employed Scientists/Engineers: Gender & Race/Ethnicity, 2007

5 Underrepresentation in STEM –Generally, underrepresented people are those groups whose representation in STEM is less than their representation in the population as a whole. –Women are underrepresented in STEM because they are a smaller % of STEM graduates & of STEM occupations than they are of the U.S. population.

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8 Women & Computing: Views from the USA & India

9 Why? USA & India

10 Economy: USA & India Economy: USA & India The USA is the world’s most developed nation. It has the largest national GDP in the world, strong domestic market, high investment in foreign countries, a high standard of living. India is a developing country. It controlled its development with licenses & regulations before With the economic liberalization reforms of 1991, India has opened its economy to the MNCs. The IT industry is way to strengthen the economy so India could emerge as “soft power”. India is a developing country. It controlled its development with licenses & regulations before With the economic liberalization reforms of 1991, India has opened its economy to the MNCs. The IT industry is way to strengthen the economy so India could emerge as “soft power”.

11 Status of Women: USA & India Status of Women: USA & India Egalitarian form of social organization vs. patrilineal system

12 Enrollment: Indian & USA Women in Computing

13 Digital Divide: USA Before university, females had: computer at home and/or in their schoolcomputer at home and/or in their school experience in word processingexperience in word processing used a computer in their social science coursesused a computer in their social science courses used computers to solve mathematical problems or learn computer languagesused computers to solve mathematical problems or learn computer languages “My parents are professionals. They were bringing some of their work home to work on computers. …They showed us how to use them. …So we started using computers to play games”. “My parents are professionals. They were bringing some of their work home to work on computers. …They showed us how to use them. …So we started using computers to play games”.

14 Digital Divide: India Before university, female students had: no computer at home or in their schoolsno computer at home or in their schools little knowledge of word processing, , and Internetlittle knowledge of word processing, , and Internet used a computer first time after admission to university to do CSused a computer first time after admission to university to do CS “Very frankly, I got the computer in the second year of my B-tech. I did not use computer until I joined a course for computer languages.”

15 Bias in Early Socialization: USA Due to subtle socialization biases, most female students did not view themselves as becoming computer scientists or computer programmers while growing up. They initially hesitated in selecting their majors in CS. “It is challenging because you have to combat a stereotype….men do not see that we are just as competent and just as capable as them.” “It is challenging because you have to combat a stereotype….men do not see that we are just as competent and just as capable as them.”

16 Bias in Early Socialization: India Due to open socialization bias, female students were seldom seen as being a career woman either by family members or by teachers. Yet, female students viewed themselves becoming computer experts when applying for admission in universities. “Because I am a woman, there are many restrictions that are placed on me. People say why I have to study computer science when the ultimate goal for me is to get married. But I don’t care. And it makes me feel good that I am able to do computer science in spite of all odds against me.” “Because I am a woman, there are many restrictions that are placed on me. People say why I have to study computer science when the ultimate goal for me is to get married. But I don’t care. And it makes me feel good that I am able to do computer science in spite of all odds against me.”

17 The Image of Computing: USA The image of CS field is of White male, geek, and anti- social, even though most female students viewed themselves as different from the prevalent stereotypes. “I would describe CS students as basic nerd, somebody who is antisocial, who would rather spend all their time on the computer than ever talk to a person….a brilliant mind, but don’t know how to speak to other people.” “I would describe CS students as basic nerd, somebody who is antisocial, who would rather spend all their time on the computer than ever talk to a person….a brilliant mind, but don’t know how to speak to other people.”

18 The Image of Computing: India The image of CS is of a lucrative and woman-friendly field. People who join the CS field are seen as smart and intelligent, without being anti-social. “Computer scientists are considered very intelligent, very tactful, code decrypting and everything like that. So they are respected everywhere.” “Computer scientists are considered very intelligent, very tactful, code decrypting and everything like that. So they are respected everywhere.”

19 Confidence in Math/CS: USA Female students entering universities underestimated their abilities in mathematics and, thus, in CS. This was despite the fact they indicated mathematics to be their strongest subject in high school. “I don’t know if CS is what I am best at. I am seriously questioning whether or not I have an aptitude for CS.” “I don’t know if CS is what I am best at. I am seriously questioning whether or not I have an aptitude for CS.”

20 Confidence in Math/CS: India Even though female students had no exposure to computers, they had little anxiety about CS because they considered themselves very strong in mathematics and logical thinking. “I am not very knowledgeable about computer science, but when it comes to my course work, I do very well. For that matter, I would have done well in any technical field.” “I am not very knowledgeable about computer science, but when it comes to my course work, I do very well. For that matter, I would have done well in any technical field.”

21 Girls=Boys in Math? USA: “We are living in a culture that is telling girls you can’t do math – that is telling everybody that only Asians and nerds do math” (Janet E. Mertz, Oncology professor at the University of Wisconsin).

22 Girls=Boys in Math Luke Casey, Industrial Loom Operator "But linear algebra was the only thing that ever made me feel like a man." Max Thomas, Cashier "Great, that's all I need. My wife knowing the exact moment I arrive in Boston if my train left New York traveling at 60 miles per hour."

23 Girls=Boys in Math India: “Girls perform very well in mathematics, are uniformly ‘toppers’ on statewide exams, which ‘anyone’ could see by looking at the newspaper” (Carol C. Mukhodadhyay, Anthropology Professor at the San Jose State University). India: “Girls perform very well in mathematics, are uniformly ‘toppers’ on statewide exams, which ‘anyone’ could see by looking at the newspaper” (Carol C. Mukhodadhyay, Anthropology Professor at the San Jose State University).

24 Girls Are Also Ahead in CBSE 10 th Class

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