Presentation on theme: "Sujit Saleepan,Nutrition Division,MOPH,Thailand. Nutrition Security in South East Asia: potential impact of climate change Sujit Saleepan,Nutrition Division,MOPH,Thailand."— Presentation transcript:
Nutrition Security in South East Asia: potential impact of climate change Sujit Saleepan,Nutrition Division,MOPH,Thailand
The World Food Summit in 1996 defined food security as a situation in which “all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. This definition goes beyond mere availability and access to food and includes a whole lot of prerequisites to promote optimal absorption and utilisation of food including healthy environment, and good eating practices. This definition also defined the link between food, nutrition and health. Food and Nutrition Security Many countries use the term ‘nutrition security’ to denote this broader concept.
Climate change impacts all aspects of food security Food availability: production, imports, aid Food stability: seasonal fluctuations, stocks Food access: prices, purchasing power Food utilization: food safety, quality, nutrition
Impact on nutritional quality of food Reduced protein content in wheat (9- 13%) Less iron content in wheat (8%) Higher lead content in wheat (14%)
Food and nutrition security FAO has advocated the ‘AAA’ approach to analyse food security – Availability (production factors, i.e. agricultural production, its determinants and availability to households); Access (household and individual’s access to food, hunger and factors determining it, i.e. poverty and literacy levels, vulnerability of populations); and Absorption (ability to absorb food - health conditions, availability of potable water and sanitation).
Under-nutrition in pre-school children In spite of the fact that South East Asia is self-sufficient in food production and relatively low poverty ratios, stunting and underweight rates in South Asia is very high – higher than SE Asia and equal to Sub-Saharan Africa so called South Asian Enigma. UnderweightWastingStunting Bangladesh461636 Bhutan19340 India461938 Maldives301325 Nepal451243 Sri Lanka2914 Thailand9412
Infant and young child feeding habits Breast feeding is nearly universal in the region. Nearly half the infants are not EBF upto 6 mth or given complementary feeds at 6mth. Poor IYCF aggravate under-nutrition in children. Climate change will not affect IYCF. Correction of IYCF can improve under-nutrition in children. Exclusively breastfed complementary food + BM Still breastfeeding at < 6 months6-9 months20-23 months Bangladesh375289 Bhutan--- India465777 Maldives1085- Nepal537595 Sri Lanka53-73 Thailand54319
% Population with HIV/AIDS In most South Asian countries prevalence of HIV infection is low; but number of persons with HIV related nutrition problems is large. Contribution of HIV to under- nutrition is low. Climate change will not affect HIV prevalence or UN. CountriesAdult (15-41)Youth (15-24) MalesFemalesMalesFemales Bangladesh---- Bhutan-0.1 <0.1 India0.50.3 Maldives---- Nepal0.5 0.3 Sri Lanka--<0.1- Thailand188.8.131.52
Adequate food production (food grains) to prevent hunger and under-nutrition: relatively easy because this is a region self sufficient in food grain production. Adequate production of vegetables through horticultural intervention to ensure dietary diversity is essential for prevention of micronutrient deficiencies: this area requires increasing attention. Fortification of salt with iodine and iron will help in sustainable improvement in iron and iodine status. Interventions needed to improve nutrition security during the era of climate change If all the countries focus and work intensively, it might be possible for the SE Asian countries to achieve nutrition security in spite of the existing problems and emerging problem of climate change.