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Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e

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1 Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 13e
Chapter 20 Northern Europe, 1400 to 1500 During the later Middle Ages France lost its dominating position as a result of the difficulties of the 100 Years War ( ); however its nobility was still dedicated to the acquisition of art. The Hundred Years' War was a series of wars waged from 1337 to 1453 for the French throne, which had become vacant upon the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings. The conflict lasted 116 years but was punctuated by several periods of peace The "war" was in fact a series of conflicts and is commonly divided into three or four phases The war owes its historical significance to a number of factors. Though primarily a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of both French and English nationalism The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry. For all this, as well as for its long duration, it is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare. In France, civil wars, deadly epidemics, famines and marauding mercenary armies (turned to banditry) reduced the population by about one-half The aristocratic aspects of the International style were gradually supplanted by the growing realism associated with the rising bourgeoisie of the fifteenth century, who themselves came to be patrons of the arts. In addition to the bourgeoisie, the courts of the kings were also becoming art patrons. Emerging capitalism was creating an economic network throughout Europe, augmenting trade and commerce. This rise in wealth also gave rise to more works commissioned by individuals for personal devotion. This period also saw the development of two technical developments in the arts: -printmaking as a major art form -the adoption of oil-based pigment as a leading medium for painting 1

2 Europe in the 15th Century

3 Goals Understand the effect of political power in the development of Northern European art. Examine the variety and types of media used in art in this period. Identify specific artists, their respective styles, and their key works of art. Understand the integration of sacred and secular power and wealth, along with its resultant display in art. 3

4 The Art of France and Flanders
Examine the effect of political power on the sumptuous art forms that developed in the 15th Century. Examine the results of Burgundian wealth and largesse directed to art. Understand the growth of public devotional art, the artists, new art media and new illusionistic devices developed. 4

5 The Very Sumptuous Hours
Examine the sumptuous art forms that developed in the 15th Century. Explore French manuscript illumination and the new spatial and illusionistic devices used in art. 5

6 In the fifteenth century, Flanders roughly comprised the area of present day Holland and Belgium.
The wealth of Flanders, like that of Florence, was based on trade and banking. Like his brother John, Philip the Bold of Burgundy was a collector. A financially prudent marriage to the daughter of the Count of Flanders made him wealthy enough to pursue his interests in art collection and patronage. Philip focused his artistic concerns primarily on the establishment of a Carthusian Monastery at the Chartreuse de Champmol near Dijon in Burgundy. He hired Claus Sluter, to create his tomb, as well as the Well of Moses (20-2) that served the cloister as a water source. Sluter combined powerful volumes with realism in these life-sized figures. Each of the six prophets (Moses, David, Daniel, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Zechariah) portrayed held banderoles foretelling the death of Christ. Figure CLAUS SLUTER, Well of Moses, Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France, 1395–1406. Limestone with traces of paint, Moses 6’ high. 6

7 Sluter also created the portal of the chapel of the Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France, 1385–1393
Sluter’s portraits of the kneeling Philip the Bold and Margaret of Mâle, presented to the Virgin by their patron saints, are convincing likenesses, consistent with the Haarlem sculptor’s realistic approach to statuary. 20-2A CLAUS SLUTER, Virgin and Child, saints, and donors, portal of the chapel of the Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France, 1385–1393. 7

8 The altarpiece commissioned for the chapel, Retable de Champmol carried the idea of salvation, as well as showing an interest in specific details of the natural world. Here the artist, Broederlam, paid special attention to the detail he observed, particularly the detail of Joseph drinking from a water bag (Presentation/Flight into Egypt). Artists of the Northern Renaissance observed nature, but they also looked at it as a reflection of the divine, a concept understood through symbols. When a medieval monk thought about a nut, he didn't just think about a food to eat. The nut was for him a symbol of the mystery of Christ's dual nature, the shell representing his human nature and the nutmeat his divine nature that was hidden in the shell of the mortal body. The love of symbolism carried over to the artists of fifteenth century Flanders, but these artists added a new dimension to it; they disguised their religious symbols behind a facade of ordinary naturalistic representation, and sanctified nature in the process. Figure MELCHIOR BROEDERLAM, Retable de Champmol. from the chapel oft he Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France, installed Oil on wood, each wing 5’ 5 3/4” X 4’ 1 1/4”. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon. 8

9 The Mérode Altarpiece was intended for private devotional worship
The Mérode Altarpiece was intended for private devotional worship. Robert Campin's altarpiece is quite small with the central panel only a little over two feet square and is movable. It is formed from three panels; the wings, or outer panels, are hinged and can be closed to cover the inner panel. The Mérode Altarpiece shows the careful detailing and brilliant jewel-like colors possible with the new technique of oil painting. We can look at the Mérode Altarpiece as a representation of a typical fifteenth- century Flemish house, with two people kneeling in the courtyard on the left wing panel, a carpenter working in his shop on the right wing panel, and a lady sitting reading in a room interior in the center panel. The angel is an obvious symbol, but there are many other symbols in the painting that extend the meaning of the work far beyond the representation of a bourgeois household interior. The white lilies in the vase on the table in the central panel could be considered as just decoration, but they are in fact a symbol referring to the purity of the Virgin Mary. The water pot in the niche at the back and the clean white towel could also refer to Pontius Pilate washing his hands of Christ. Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 9

10 Master of Flemalle (Abbey of Flemalle), Master of Merode
He apparently employed many assistants: not merely the four apprentices whom he registered with the Guild At the feet of the aged St. Joseph in the foreground of the right wing is a detailed still life showing carpenter's tools, a tiny footstool, and a chipped, peeling log of split firewood Dominant in this array are an ax, a saw, and a wooden rod, variously resting on the stool and the log. While they are perfectly applicable to a carpentry shop, all the components of this still life have a vital symbolic function in the panel The ax, the saw, and the rod literally illustrate a significant passage in the book of Isaiah (10 :15): "Shall the ax boast itself against him that heweth there- with? or shall the saw magnify itself against him that shaketh it? as if the rod should shake itself against them that lift it up, or as if he staff should lift up itself as if it were no wood.” Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 10

11 Each element at Joseph's feet also has an individual symbolic function
Each element at Joseph's feet also has an individual symbolic function. The saw, first of all, is a direct symbol of the prophet Isaiah, for it is the instrument of his martyrdom. The apocryphal Ascension of Isaiah relates that the Assyrian King, enraged at the visions revealed to him by the prophet, had Isaiah sawed in two with a wood saw. The tiny footstool on which the saw rests is a familiar symbol of the earth. It is frequently associated with the Annuncia- tion, with other scenes of Christ's infancy, and with Joseph. A major source is Isaiah 66 : 1: "Thus saith the Lord, the heaven is my throne and the earth is my footstool. The rod leaning on the log opposite the footstool can be no other than the rod of Joseph himself-the means of his selection as the husband of Mary. The familiar story of this rather unusual bethrothal is explained in the apocryphal Gospel of the Birth of Mary as a revelation from God to the priests of the temple at Nazareth: ".... that it must be inquired or sought out by a prophecy of Isaiah to whom the Virgin should be given and be betrothed; For Isaiah saith there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a flower shall spring out of its root.”The reference is to Isaiah 11 : 1 Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 11

12 Why was Joseph so important to the Nativity, according to Jerome’s commentaries?
Read at Christmas Eve, Jerome's homily lists four reasons why Christ's birth was of a betrothed virgin rather than a single woman: that his generation could be traced through Joseph; that Mary might not be stoned by the Jews as an adul- teress; that she would have the solace of a husband during her refuge in Egypt; and finally (a reason added by "the Martyr Igna- tius"), "that the Offspring might be concealed from the Devil for he fancied Him not born of a virgin, but of a married woman.”’ Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 12

13 Mousetrap The mousetraps that appear in the right wing of the triptych are symbols of the Cross of Christ, the means of the Devil's final ca tupre as a result of the deception. One source for this image is found in a sermon on the Ascension of Christ written by Augustine: "The Devil exulted when Christ died, but by this very death of Christ was vanquished, as if he had swallowed the bait in the mousetrap; the bait by which he was caught, the Lord's death.'” Drilling Holes Joseph is engaged in drilling a pattern of holes in a small board. The Hebrew version of Isaiah 10:15 reads, "Is it possible that the auger should boast itself against him that bores with it, saying, have not I bored? Shall the saw magnify itself against him that saws therewith, saying, have not I sawn? When one lifts a rod to smite, it is not the rod that smiteth, but he who smites therewith.” Thus Joseph is directly and actively linked with the objects at his feet. Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 13

14 One further, reassuring symbol appears in Joseph's shop-atiny object usually overlooked in descriptions of the painting. On a corner of Joseph's workbench, by his elbow, is a little white pebble lying between the handles of a pair of pincers. The pebble is meant to illustrate a passage in the text of the Apocalypse (2 :17): "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; to him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it." The white stone is an ancient symbol of innocence, given to a man who has been found innocent at a public trial. Next Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 14

15 First of all, the central panel of the Merode Altarpiece does not show the Annunciation at all. The message has not yet passed from Gabriel to Mary, nor is she aware of the archangel's presence. The Annunciation must include both the delivery of God's word to Mary and her acceptance. Virtually all pictorial representa- tions of the Annunciation per se celebrate the complete occasion. Iconographically, then, the Me-rode Altarpiece records the promise rather than the fulfillment em bodied in the Annunciation. Figure 20-4 ROBERT CAMPIN (MASTER OF FLEMALLE), Merode Altarpiece (open), ca Oil on wood, center panel 2’ 1 3/8” X 2’ 7/8”, each wing 2’ 1 3/8” X 10 7/8”. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (The Cloisters Collection, 1956). 15

16 Van Eyck's most important work is the Ghent Altarpiece
It has many panels and is called a polyptych (a triptych, as we have seen, has three panels, while a polyptych has many panels). The Ghent Altar closed sets the religious tone for the Ghent Altar open. The wash basin and towel, seen in the small panel immediately adjacent of the Virgin, are symbols of the Virgin's purity, as well as a reference to the Baptism and the washing away of the First Sin. These symbols also refer to Pontius Pilate’s role in the Passion, thus supporting the theme of salvation. The open window adjacent to the Angel Gabriel panel refers to the dual nature of Christ. The Virgin kneels in a posture of humility as she receives Gabriel’s salutation. His words are written in gold, as is her answer; but the letters of her answer are written upside down for they are addressed to God directly, not to the spectator. The patrons who commissioned this work, Burgomaster Jodocus Vyd and his wife Isabel Borluut, represent the spectators. These earnest fifteenth-century business people preferred to be shown exactly as they were. Between the donors are figures of the two Saint Johns, which look like stone statues because they are painted only in tones of gray. The technique, which was often used on the exterior of altarpieces, was known as grisaille. Earlier in the Middle Ages a gray painted cloth was draped over the altarpiece during Lent, and during the 15th century from this custom came the idea of painting the exterior of some altarpieces with tones of gray. The altarpiece was closed during the period of Lent, so the people would only see the outside; the promise of salvation, represented by the Annunciation, carried the faithful through the Lenten cycle. Figure JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed Oil on wood, 11’ 6" X 7’ 6". 16

17 The open altarpiece shows Mary, John, and God the Father in the upper register flanked by music-making angels, with Adam and Eve on the far outside. Unlike the other panels, the representation of these two figures suggests that they were painted last; they certainly represent an advance in realism, denoting moral vulnerability by means of their unprotected and naked bodies. These figures are far from the glorified nudes of classical antiquity. Instead, van Eyck gives us human beings aware of their dilemma. The other panels of the altarpiece provide the answer to the human awareness of sin and of God's love because of the promise of salvation, represented by the central panel. The mystic lamb from the central panel symbolizes salvation and redemption. Christ has become the sacrificial lamb used in Judaic religious practices, in which the blood of the sacrifice washed away the sins of the devout. The hallowed lamb stands on the altar, his blood streaming into the chalice, thus embodying the central mystery of the Mass, the Eucharist, when the wine in the chalice is transformed into the redeeming blood of Christ. The sacrificial blood is symbolized again on the sides of the throne of God the Father by the pelican, which according to legend, pierced her own breast with her beak so that her blood might sustain her brood. Figure JAN VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, completed Oil on wood, 11’ 5" X 15’ 1”. 17

18 The painting of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride 1434 by Jan van Eyck, not only memorialized the marriage, but in all probability was itself a legal document. The painting represented a transition between medieval and 15th century marriage customs. During the Middle Ages a church ceremony was not necessary as all that was required was for the man and woman to promise to abide by the marriage vows they exchanged before witnesses. The Anolfini wedding portrait is, in effect, proof of the marriage and the presence of the two witnesses who are reflected in the mirror solemnized the marriage. Around the mirror are scenes from Christ's passion, indicating his saving grace. The single burning candle symbolizes God’s presence as well, while the shoes symbolize that the marriage takes place on holy ground and in the divine presence. The dog symbolizes the bride's fidelity, while the broom symbolizes her wifely duties. A tiny statue of St. Margaret shown on the chair will keep her safe in childbirth. Figure JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride, Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 9" X 1’ 10 1/2". National Gallery, London. 18

19 20-5A JAN VAN EYCK, Madonna in a Church, ca. 1425–1430
20-5A JAN VAN EYCK, Madonna in a Church, ca. 1425–1430. Oil on wood, 1’ 1/4" X 5 1/2". Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin. Symbolism is likewise a significant feature of Van Eyck’s Madonna in a Church . Here the Madonna literally fills the nave as an oversized symbol of the Church. 19

20 Here the subject confronts the viewer with assurance.
This is a man who is confident and secure in his society. It is thought that perhaps this is a self-portrait of Jan van Eyck; nevertheless, the artist has recorded this individual’s personality as self-assured. Figure JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, Oil on wood, 1’ 1 1/8” X 10 1/4". National Gallery, London. 20

21 Figure ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Deposition, center panel of a triptych from Notre-Dame hors-les-murs, Louvain, Belgium, ca Oil on wood, 7’ 2 5/8" X 8’ 7 1/8". Museo del Prado, Madrid. 21

22 Describe artist’s profession in flanders
Figure 20-9 ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin, ca Oil and tempera on wood, 4’ 6 1/8” X 3’ 7 5/8”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. (Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Lee Higginson) 22

23 The portraits commissioned were to represent not only the importance of the individual, but also to give them the reality of an object which memorialized them more or less permanently. The Flemish artists were very accomplished at creating portraits that depicted wealth circumspectly; moreover, they were also able to capture the psychological being of the patron. For example, in Rogier van der Weyden’s Portrait of a Lady c.1460 (20-10), her clothing distinguishes her position within Flemish society, but her pursed lips and lowered eyes indicate a shy and retiring personality. He has emphasized her features by the angularity of her veil and the three-quarter presentation of the sitter Figure ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Portrait of a Lady, ca Oil on panel, 1’ 1 3/8" X 10 1/16". National Gallery, Washington, D.C. (Andrew W. Mellon Collection). 23

24 Is this a religious painting?
Figure PETRUS CHRISTUS, A Goldsmith in His Shop, Oil on wood, approx. 3’ 3" X 2’ 10". Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (the Robert Lehman Collection, 1975). 24

25 Discuss the perspective in this painting
Figure DIRK BOUTS, Last Supper central panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Sacrament, Saint Peter’s, Louvain, Belgium, 1464–1468. Oil on wood, 6’ X 5’. 25

26 Tommaso Portinari, who was the principal agent for the Medici bank in Flanders, commissioned from Hugo van der Goes the triptych, Portinari Altarpiece, done in the 1470s (20-13). It combined an interest in emotional expression with van Eyck's interest in symbolism. In the center panel we see the shoe, again symbolizing holy ground. The pillar supporting the shed prefigures the pillar to which Christ will be tied during the scourging. The cow that watches the scene symbolizes the Gentiles, while the donkey that ignores it all symbolizes the Jews. The small still life in the foreground contains many symbols. The sheaf of wheat refers to Bethlehem and bread transformed into the body of Christ (hence the Eucharist) while the flowers refer to the Sorrows of the Madonna. When Tommaso returned to Florence with the commissioned triptych, it became very influential in Italy. Figure HUGO VAN DER GOES, Portinari Altarpiece (open), from Sant’Egidio, Florence, Italy, ca Tempera and oil on wood, 8’ 3 1/2" X 10’ center panel, 8’ 3 1/2" X 4’ 7 1/2" (each wing). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence. 26

27 We see St. Catherine kneeling before the Virgin and Christ Child, with the wheel of her torture on the carpet at her feet. On the right side of the Virgin appears St. Barbara, reading before a small model of the tower, her place of confinement. Standing on either side of the Virgin and Child are St. John the Evangelist with his chalice, and St. John the Baptist with his lamb. Most of Memling's compositions show the same sweet faces, careful detailing, and balanced grouping. He achieved this balance by placing the figures in carefully designed compositional formats. For example, Sts. Catherine and Barbara show a rounded mass of fabric and folds, which balance their placement in the foreground of the composition. The two side wings also support the primary theme of the altarpiece; the left panel depicts the head of the Baptist presented to Salome, while the right wing depicts St. John on Patmos, symbolizing salvation and redemption achieved through sacrifice. Figure HANS MEMLING, Virgin with Saints and Angels, center panel of the Saint John Altarpiece, Hospitaal Sint Jan, Bruges, Belgium, Oil on wood, 5’ 7 3/4" X 5’ 7 3/4" (center panel), 5’ 7 3/4" X 2’ 7 1/8" (each wing). 27

28 Among the greatest art collectors of the time were John Duke de Berry and his brothers.
Characteristics of the International Gothic style can be seen in the works commissioned by these men, a good example of which is the Très Riches Heures painted for the Duke of Berry by the Limbourg Brothers in the early fifteenth century The northern interest in detailed realism, however, was closely interwoven with the characteristics of the International Gothic style. The famous calendar pages illustrate the activities of both peasants and nobles that characterized the various months of the year, and show the fascination with the visible world that was to mark fifteenth-century painting. Figure LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), January, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, approx. 8 7/8" X 5 3/8". Musée Condé, Chantilly. 28

29 Figure LIMBOURG BROTHERS (POL, JEAN, HERMAN), October, from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1413–1416. Ink on vellum, 8 7/8" X 5 3/8”. Musée Condé, Chantilly. 29

30 The French artist Jean Fouquet, also did a portrait of Étienne Chevalier and St. Stephen from the Melun Diptych c.1450 (20-17). Rather than present Étienne Chevalier alone as van der Weyden and van Eyck did, Fouquet opted to depict the sitter with his patron saint, St. Stephen, similar to a devotional work, such as the Mérode Altarpiece (20-4). However, Fouquet has singularized the portrait rather than create a purely devotional work Figure JEAN FOUQUET, Melun Diptych. Étienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen, (left wing), ca Oil on wood, 3’ 1/2” X 2’ 9 1/2”. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Virgin and Child, (right wing) ca Oil on wood, 3’ 1 1/4” X 2’ 9 1/2”. Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp. 30

31 German sculpture in this period maintained its commitment to emotional religious fervor.
In the Gothic period, German sculpture was emotional and deeply committed to depicting the pain and suffering of the principals. Figure VEIT STOSS, The Death and Assumption of the Virgin (wings open), altar of the Virgin Mary, church of Saint Mary, Kraków, Poland, 1477–1489. Painted and gilded wood, central panel 23’ 9” high. 31

32 , in Tilman Riemenschneider’s The Assumption of the Virgin c
, in Tilman Riemenschneider’s The Assumption of the Virgin c (20-19), the artist depicts the emotion of religious joy. Here the Apostles are gathered to witness her assumption into heaven, witnessing the triumph of her position and faith. The Virgin forms the apex of the group of the Apostles, some of whom are looking out and drawing the viewer into the miracle so the viewer also becomes a witness to the event. By witnessing the event through this sculpture inside a parish church, the viewer also receives confirmation of both salvation and redemption. Figure TILMAN RIEMENSCHNEIDER, The Assumption of the Virgin, center panel of the Creglingen Altarpiece, Herrgottskirche, Creglingen, Germany, ca. 1495–1499. Lindenwood, 6’ 1” wide. 32

33 Landscape painting Figure KONRAD WITZ, Miraculous Draught of Fish, from the Altarpiece of Saint Peter, from Chapel of Notre-Dame des Maccabées in the Cathedral of Saint Peter, Geneva, Switzerland, Oil on wood, approx. 4’ 3” X 5’ 1”. Musée d’art et d’Histoire, Geneva. 33

34 Figure MICHEL WOLGEMUT and shop, Tarvisium, page from the so-called Nuremberg Chronicle, Woodcut,1’ 2” X 9”. Printed by ANTON KOBERGER. 34

35 Figure 20-22 MARTIN SCHONGAUER, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, ca
Figure MARTIN SCHONGAUER, Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons, ca. 1480–1490. Engraving, 1’ 1/4" X 9". Fondazione Magnani Rocca, Corte di Mamiano. 35

36 Burgundian Wealth and Art
Understand the need for sacred sculpture and new sacred art. Examine the growth of devotional altarpieces, the media, and individual artists. 36

37 20.2 Flemish Public and Private Devotional Art
Examine the large numbers of private and public devotional art created at this time.  Identify specific artists, their respective styles and their key works of art. Understand the relationship between religious and secular authority in the development of art. Examine the rise of portraiture and self-portraits. 37

38 Flemish Public Devotional Art
Examine the complex illusionary images of the Flemish artists, especially noting the development of a single vanishing point. 38

39 Private Images Examine the private devotional art created at this time.  Understand the illusionistic devices in painting, the atmosphere of the private home, and the attention to symbolism. 39

40 Portraiture and the Growing Interest in Secular Art
Examine the rise of portraiture and self-portraits and the social and economic factors that made portraiture desirable. 40

41 15th Century French and German Art
Understand the royal court art in France and the integration of the sacred and the secular in art. Examine the art that developed in Germany and in the Holy Roman Empire. Comprehend the variety and types of media used in art in this period. Identify specific artists, their respective styles, and their key works of art. Examine the development of graphic art, especially in Germany in the 15th Century. 41

42 French Sacred and Secular Art
Understand royal court art and the integration of the sacred and the secular. Identify specific artists, their styles, media and works of art. 42

43 15th Century German Art Examine the art patronage interest in private piety and familiar themes. Identify specific artists, styles and works of art. 43

44 Development of Graphic Arts
Examine the development of graphic arts, especially in Germany in the 15th Century. Understand the processes that were developed in relief and intaglio printmaking. 44

45 Discussion Questions What were some of the most important innovations in art media and spatial techniques at this time? How does the court and wealthy merchant patronage shape the content and appearance of religious and secular art? Why does the portrait – absent in art for nearly 1000 years – return in this period? 45

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