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Factors that contributed to the development of cities in the fifteenth century: The migration of a significant portion of the rural population to urban.

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Presentation on theme: "Factors that contributed to the development of cities in the fifteenth century: The migration of a significant portion of the rural population to urban."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Factors that contributed to the development of cities in the fifteenth century: The migration of a significant portion of the rural population to urban centers. The thriving commerce, industry, and finance of Europes economic development, spurred by the first international commercial stock exchange.

3 A book used for reciting prayers. They replaced traditional psalters, which had been the only liturgical books in private hands until the mid-13 th century. The centerpiece was the Office of the Blessed Virgin, which contained liturgical passages to be read privately at set times during the day. An illustrated calendar containing local religious feast days usually proceeded the Office. Penitential psalms, devotional prayers, litanies to the saints, and other prayers followed the centerpiece.

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5 Limbourg Brothers May from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum 8 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry shown in by The three Limbourg Brothers, Pol (possibly Paul), Hennequin (possibly Jean or Jan), and Herman.

6 Limbourg Brothers February from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum 8 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. Stylistic characteristics that link the illuminations done by the Limbourg brothers with fourteenth-century Sienese painting: Growing artistic interest in naturalism. Close observation of the natural world and Convincing shadows cast by the people and objects. Depiction of a perceptual reality, as shown by the architectural detail.

7 Limbourg Brothers October from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum 8 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. The illustration for October depicts the Louvre as it appeared in the time of Charles V in a highly realistic manner. In the foreground a man scatters seeds for a spring crop as another on horseback drags a medieval tiller across the field. Notably, this illumination contains the first representations of ground shadows since Classical antiquity

8 Limbourg Brothers January from Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry ink, tempera and gold leaf on vellum 8 1/2 x 5 1/2 in. In the Middle Ages, it was much more common to exchange gifts on Twelfth Night -- January 6th -- than on Christmas Day itself. The great feast here may have been meant to depict a Twelfth Night celebration. The Duc de Berry himself is depicted on the right, in blue, seated at the lavishly-laden table. Philip the Bold and Duc du Berry (Duke of Berry) were considered two northern dukes who are generally considered to have been the greatest patrons of the arts in northern Europe in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries:

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10 Claus Sluter Well of Moses Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France stone figures approximately 6 ft. high Symbolic Meaning A symbolic fountain of life, with the Blood of Christ flowing down over the Old Testament prophets, washing away their sins into the well below. It represents the promise of everlasting life.

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12 Mechior Broederlam Retable de Champmol From Chapel of the Chartreuse de Champmol, Dijon, France Installed 1399 tempera on panel panels each 5 ft. 3 3/4 in. x 4 ft. 1 1/4 in. Two medieval conventions retained: Flat gold background. Staid treatment of figures and the traditional halos. New feature seen in the work: The multi-image format allowed artists to construct narratives through a sequence of images, somewhat like manuscript illumination.

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14 Polyptych Hinged multipanel paintings. Retable An architectural screen or wall above and behind an altar, usually containing painting, sculpture, carving, or other decorations. Triptych A three-paneled painting or altarpiece.

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16 Jan van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece (closed) Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium 1432 oil on wood 11 ft. 5 3/4 in. high Theme Humanitys Redemption.

17 Jan van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece (closed) (detail of St. John the Evangelist) Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium 1432 oil on wood 11 ft. 5 3/4 in. high

18 Jan van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece (open) Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium 1432 oil on wood 11 ft. 5 3/4 in. high Top : Adam – a choir of angels - Mary (Queen of Heaven) - God the Father – St. John the Baptist – an angel playing the organ - Eve Bottom : Judges - knights - community of saints from the four corners of the earth proceeding toward the altar of the Lamb (the sacrificed Son of God) and the octagonal fountain of life – hermits – pilgrims

19 Symbolism Hermits: Temperance Judges: Justice Pilgrims: Prudence Knights: Fortitude

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22 Painting technique was perfected by fifteenth-century Flemish painters Oil. Description of technique: Layers are laid down in transparent glazes over opaque or semiopaque underlayers. Painters could build up deep tones through repeated glazing. Compared to tempera technique Oils dry more uniformly and slowly, providing the artist more time to rework areas and permitting the mixing of pigments.

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24 Rogier van der Weyden Deposition from Notre- Hors-les-murs, Louvain, Belgium ca oil on wood approximately 7 ft. 3 in. x 8 ft. 7 in. In contrast to the complex symbolism of Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden stressed in his paintings human action and drama. List Three characteristics of his style: The figures and action are compressed onto a shallow stage to concentrate the observers attention. Crisp drawing and precise modeling of forms. compositional unity is created through a series of lateral undulating movements, strengthened by psychological means, namely the anguish shared by many figures.

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27 The Guild of St. Luke As in Italy, boys were apprenticed to a master at an early age. The master taught the fundamentals of the craft: how to make implements, how to prepare panels, and how to mix colors, oils, and varnishes. Once he mastered these techniques, a painter worked as a journeyman in various cities, learning from other masters. He was then eligible to become a master and applied for admission to the guild. He obtained commissions through the guild. The guild also inspected his paintings to ensure that he used quality materials and to evaluate workmanship.

28 Rogier van der Weyden Judgment Altarpiece (open) Hôtel-Dieu, Beaune, France ca panel 7 ft. 4 5/8 in. x 17 ft. 11 in.

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32 Dirk Bouts Last Supper From Saint Peters, Louvain, Belgium oil on wood approximately 6 ft. 5 in. high Two fifteenth-century Flemish painters who demonstrated the greatest interest in the depiction of space and cubic form were Dirk Bouts and Hugo van der Goes Scholars believe that Dirk Bouts was the first northern artist to utilize a single vanishing point for construction of an architectural interior.

33 Hugo van der Goes Portinari Altarpiece (open) From SantEgidio, Florence, Italy ca tempera and oil on wood 8 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 10 ft. (center) 8 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 4 ft. 7 1/2 in. (wings)

34 Hugo van der Goes Central Panel Portinari Altarpiece From SantEgidio, Florence, Italy ca tempera and oil on wood Symbolism: Iris and columbine: The Sorrows of the Virgin. Sheaf of wheat: Bethlehem (house of bread in Hebrew). Harp of David: The ancestry of Christ.

35 Hugo van der Goes Portinari Altarpiece (open) From SantEgidio, Florence, Italy ca tempera and oil on wood 8 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 10 ft. (center) 8 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 4 ft. 7 1/2 in. (wings)

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37 Hans Memling Saint John Altarpiece Hospital Sint Jan, Bruges, Belgium 1479 oil on wood 5 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 5 ft. 7 3/4 in (center) 5 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 7 1/8 in (wings) subject matter Hans Memling specialized in were images of the Madonna.

38 Style The Madonna is a young, slight, pretty princess holding a doll-like Christ. The pictorial style is opulent with rich, luminous colors, carefully depicted tapestries, and serene figures. The composition is balanced and serene. The execution is of the highest technical quality.

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40 Robert Campin Merode Altarpiece (open) ca oil on wood 2 ft. 1 in. 2 ft. 1 in. (center)

41 The blending of sacred and secular effected the way devotional images were painted in that Biblical scenes were often presented as happening in a Flemish house. The book, candle, water jug and towels symbolize Marys purity and divine mission. in the Mérode Altarpiece.

42 Two factors that contributed to the great demand for images for private devotion: Dissatisfaction with the clergy. Popular reform movements advocated personal devotion.

43 Robert Campin also known as the Master of Flémalle Three characteristics of his style: Every object functions as a religious symbol. Attention to detail: carefully rendered architecture and the carpenters shop is inventoried completely. The M é rode Altarpiece is personalized to the patron with references to the patrons name and his wifes name, and the setting is definitively Flemish.

44 Jan van Eyck Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride 1434 oil on wood 2 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 11 1/2 in. Symbolism Cast aside clogs indicating… The event is taking place on holy ground Dog…. Fidelity (fido, to trust) Open curtains of the marriage bed Bed Post finial…. Statue of St. Margaret, patron saint of childbirth. Whisk broom…. Domestic care Oranges…. Fertility The probable purpose of the painting Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride is to record and sanctify the marriage; other think Arnolfini is conferring legal privileges to his wife to conduct business in his absence.

45 Jan van Eyck Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride 1434 oil on wood 2 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 11 1/2 in. Single Burning Candle All-seeing eye of God Small medallions… Scenes from the passion of Christ Gods ever-present Conventional Gender Roles Woman stand near the Bed Man near the window

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49 Petrus Christus A Goldsmith in His Shop (St. Eligius) 1449 oil on wood 3 ft. 3 in. x 2 ft. 10 in. Saint Eligius was a master goldsmith before committing his life to God. The painting is set in a goldsmiths shop. It may have been commissioned by The guild of goldsmiths for their guild chapel.

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51 Jan van Eyck Man in a Red Turban 1433 oil on wood 10 1/4 in. x 7 1/2 in. The significance about the pose of the Man in a Red Turban is that this is the first Western painted portrait where the subject looks directly at the viewer.

52 Jan van Eyck Annunciation c oil on canvas 93 x 37 cm

53 Jan van Eyck Annunciation c oil on canvas 93 x 37 cm

54 Rogier van der Weyden Portrait of a Lady ca oil on panel 13 3/8 in. x 10 1/16 in. Flemish characteristics of Rogiers Portrait of a Lady that distinguish it from the work of Italian artists such as Ghirlandaio: Her demeanor seems pious and reserved rather than stern or simply uncharacterized. Three-quarters view instead of a formal profile. Little emphasis on surface detail; instead, he defined large, simple planes and volumes, achieving an effect of dignity and grace.

55 Hieronymus Bosch The Temptations of Saint Anthony 1510 oil on wood 70 x 51 cm

56 Hieronymus Bosch The Temptations of Saint Anthony 1510 oil on wood 70 x 51 cm

57 Hieronymus Bosch The Creation of the World oil on wood 76 3/4 x 43 1/4 in.

58 Hieronymus Bosch Creation of Eve, Garden of Earthly Delights, Hell oil on wood 7 ft. 2 5/8 in. x 6 ft. 4 3/4 in. (center)

59 Hieronymus Bosch Garden of Earthly Delights oil on wood 7 ft. 2 5/8 in. x 6 ft. 4 3/4 in. (center) Nude people cavorting in a landscape dotted with bizarre creatures and objects that suggest procreation. Might be a Last Judgment scene.

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61 Hieronymus Bosch Garden of Earthly Delights (center panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm

62 Hieronymus Bosch Garden of Earthly Delights (center panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm

63 Hieronymus Bosch The Creation of Eve (left panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm God presenting Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.

64 Hieronymus Bosch The Creation of Eve (left panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm

65 Hieronymus Bosch The Creation of Eve (left panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm

66 Hieronymus Bosch Hell (right panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm The horrors of Hell.

67 Hieronymus Bosch Hell (right panel) oil on wood 220 x 389 cm

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69 Jean Fouquet Melun Diptych É tienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen ca oil on wood 3 ft. 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 9 1/2 in. Two features of Fouquets panel that are similar to Flemish donor portraits: The donor appears in the left panel with his patron saint. The donor is kneeling with hands clasped in prayer, and the saint appears with the instrument of his martyrdom. The three-quarter stances of the figures and the clear, sharp focus.

70 Jean Fouquet Melun Diptych É tienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen ca oil on wood 3 ft. 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 9 1/2 in.

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72 attr. Enguerrand Quarton The Avignon Pieta ca oil on wood 5 ft. 4 in x 7 ft. 2 in.

73 Hunt of the Unicorn ca wool, silk, and metal thread 12 ft. 1 in. x 12 ft. 5 in.

74 Unicorn in Captivity ca wool, silk, and metal thread

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76 Konrad Witz Miraculous Draught of Fish from Cathedral of St. Peter, Geneva, Switzerland 1444 oil on wood 4 ft. 3 in. x 5 ft. 1 in.

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78 Stephan Lochner Madonna in the Rose Garden ca tempera on wood 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 4 in.

79 Stephan Lochner Madonna in the Rose Garden ca tempera on wood 1 ft. 8 in. x 1 ft. 4 in.

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81 Veit Stoss Death and Assumption of the Virgin from Church of St. Mary, Kraków, Poland painted and gilded wood 43 ft. x 35 ft. overall

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84 Tilman Riemenschneider The Assumption of the Virgin center panel of the Creglingen Altarpiece Creglingen, Germany carved lindenwood 6 ft. 1 in. wide

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86 Johannes Gutenberg Gutenberg Bible printed in Mainz, Germany ca printed ink on paper cm

87 Johannes Gutenberg Gutenberg Bible printed in Mainz, Germany ca printed ink on paper cm

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89 Michel Wolgemut and Shop Nuremburg Chronicle 1493 printed ink on paper

90 Martin Schongauer Temptation of Saint Anthony ca engraving 13 x 11 in.

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92 Gil de Siloé Christ Crucified Carthusian Monastery painted and gilded wooden altarpiece

93 Plateresque Portal Colegio de San Gregorio Valladolid, Spain ca. 1498

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