Presentation on theme: "Religion and Politics: The Post-Colonial Experience October 20, 2004."— Presentation transcript:
Religion and Politics: The Post-Colonial Experience October 20, 2004
Religion, State and Nation in Europe Monarchies subordinate religious authority to create national states Monarchies use religious belief to create national identity Religious schism shatters national identities, breaks up states Institutionalized toleration: state enforced peace between religions
The Secular Settlement Separation of church and state Supremacy of secular law State education Rights-based toleration
Citizenship and Secularism The nation as a community of rights-bearing equals Democratic citizenship as the basis of legitimacy Secularism as the basis of deliberation
The Post-Colonial Experience
The Colonial Inheritance Imperialism as ‘live and let live’ Imperialism as ‘divide and rule’ Imperialism as ‘the secular settlement’
The Post-Colonial Challenge To create a state To forge a nation
The Secular Settlement in Post-Colonial States Separating religion and politics? Affirming the primacy of secular law? Creating national citizenship?
Religion and the Constitution: Turkey “…as required by the principle of secularism, there shall be no interference whatsoever by sacred religious feelings in state affairs and politics…” (Preamble) “No one shall be allowed to exploit or abuse religion or religious feelings, or things held sacred by religion, in any manner whatsoever, for the purpose of personal or political influence, or for even partially basing the fundamental, social, economic, political, and legal order of the state on religious tenets. ” (Article 24)
Religion and the Constitution: India “WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC…” (Preamble) “The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth...” (Article 15 (1)) “Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right: (a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes; (b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion; (c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and (d) to administer such property in accordance with law.” (Article 26)
Religion and the Constitution: Indonesia “The state shall be based upon belief in one god.” (Article 29 (1)) “The state shall guarantee freedom to every resident to adhere to their respective religion and to perform their religious duties in accordance with their religion and that faith.” (Article 29 (2)).
Religion and the Constitution: Egypt “Islam is the Religion of the State. Arabic is its official language, and the principal source of legislation is Islamic Jurisprudence (Sharia).” (Article 2, as amended by plebiscite May 22, 1980) “Religious education shall be a principal subject in the courses of general education.” (Article 19) “The State shall guarantee the freedom of belief and the freedom of practicing religious rights.” (Article 46).
Religion and the Constitution: Afghanistan “Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic, independent, unitary and indivisible state.” (Article 1) “The religion of Afghanistan is the sacred religion of Islam. Followers of other religions are free to perform their religious rites within the limits of the provisions of law.” (Article 2) “In Afghanistan, no law can be contrary to the sacred religion of Islam and the values of this Constitution.” (Article 3)
The Secular Path to Nation Building Socialism and state power State power and national development The religious counter-attack
The Crisis of the Secular Path Despotism and stagnation Inequality and underdevelopment Demographic crisis Fragmentation of state and nation
The Return of Religion The glorious lure of the past The cry of the oppressed The appeal of moral reform The politics of the impossible