3 DEMOCRACYDemocracy is considered as the government of the people by the people and for the people.-Abraham LincolnDemocracy is a way of life, a determining influence inevery major area of life.-Boyd and Bode
5 libertyImplies freedom given to the individual to develop his own abilities as he thinks best, without being restricted by eternal factors.This is possible only when no single individual has unlimited power and no individual misuses the rights given to him
7 EqualityIf Democracy is to be successful it is necessary for every individual to be socially, politically and economically equal.Equality does not imply neglect of individual differences but it means equality of purpose or equal opportunities.
9 FraternityThe ideal of brotherhood is necessary for the psychological feeling of unity the real difficulty of lies not in establishing a democratic government but in establishing a democratic society to which democratic government is but an agency.Fraternity implies co-operation the basis on which society can work to gather and live in peace together.
13 Political democracyA form of government in which the ruling power of the state is listed with few member of the communityIn a democracy it is not the individuals who rule the country rather it is governed by the rules and regulationsAlthough a democratic government is a representative of the majority it takes care to protect the rights of minoritiesPolitical democracy emphasis that no citizen is discriminated on the basis of sex, race, religion or any other ground that distinguishes them from others.
15 Social democracyIt emphasis on equality and brotherhood between all individuals.It also implies that one must treat one self and other as having inherit value and the good of another is not less valuable than ones own good.In such a state everyone would behave in such a way that it would promote the good of another while trying to achieve self goals.
17 Economic Democracyrecognises, the right of individuals to earn their livelihood without interference or obstruction.right to earn wealth does not become a means to control means of production and create economic disparitiesTo maintain equality democratic institutions enact legislations to protect the rights of working class and the backward class.Democracy believes in economic welfare of individuals without exploitation.
19 Educational Democracy This envisages equal opportunities for education.It also works at eliminating disparities due to lack of resources.Admissions based on social justice.It gives provision to include socially and economically backward individual in mainstream education.Educational democracy also presuppose academic freedom
21 SECULARISM“Morality should be based solely in regard to the well being of mankind in the present life to the exclusion of all consideration drawn from belief in God”-Oxford DictionaryThe word Secularism was derived from the Latin word secular meaning present age.
22 Principle of secularism according to Holydake Principle of primary emphasis on the material and cultural improvement of human beings.Principle of respect for and search for all truth. Whatever be its source, which can be tested in experience leading to human betterment.Principle of concern for this world or age and its improvement.Principle of independent rational morality which does not base itself in faith or divine commandment.
24 Indian Concept of Secularism There will be no state religion.The Indian understanding of secularism can be summed in the word of mahatma Gandhi as follows“My veneration for other faith is the same as for my own faith we believe in sarva-dharma-samabhavana. Having equal regard for all faiths and creeds.
25 Characteristics of a secular state “ Prof. Donald. E Smith.A Secular state functions in a way independent of religionA Secular state treats all religions on equalA secular state permits individual and collective freedom of religionsA secular state views all individuals as citizens with equalA secular state is not against religious but may restrict religious freedom or religious practices in public interest of harmony
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