2Figurative LanguageLanguage that communicates ideas beyond the ordinary, literal meaning of words.**things do not mean what the words actually sayExamples: metaphor, simile, idiom, personification, etc.
3MetaphorA comparison between two objects; often says that one thing is another.Ex: He is a bear on the football field!
4Simile A comparison between two objects using "like", "as", or "than". Ex: She is as quick as a cat!
5Alliteration The repetition of the initial consonant sound. Ex: Sally sells sea shells by the sea shore
6Allusion A reference to someone or something in history or literature. Ex: But I'll be hood forever I'm the new Sinatra And since I made it here
7PersonificationGiving human qualities or characteristics to animals or objects.Ex: The pen danced across the paper
8Hyperbole Extreme exaggeration for effect. Ex: It took me “FOREVER” to finish the project!
9Idiom An expression common to a certain group of people. Ex: Don’t bite off more than you can chew.
10AntagonistThe character who opposes the hero; provides the story’s conflictEx: the wolf in “The Three Little Pigs”
11Protagonistthe main character in a story, novel, drama, or other literary work; the character that the reader or audience empathizes withJack in “Jack and the Beanstalk”
12Point of View1st person-story is being told by a character within the story (I, we, us)2nd person-speaking to “you”; often as in a letter or directions3rd person limited-outside narrator; reader is informed of all ACTIONS of characters and thoughts of 1character3rd person omniscient – narrator is all- knowing; reader is informed of all thoughts and actions of characters
13ForeshadowingHints or clues as to what is going to happen later in a storyExample: In “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” - the description of Brom’s horse Daredevil that mentions he is full of mischief and mettle just like his owner(hints that the horse and rider are/will be up to something)
14Imagery the use of words and phrases to create a mental picture Example: There was a tree at that corner, a straight but little tree with slim branches and shiny dark leaves. – from “The Osage Orange Tree”
15CharacterizationCharacterization is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character.Stated Characterization tells the audience what the personality of the character is.Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl were both well mannered and did not disobey their mother.”Implied Characterization shows things that reveal the personality of a character.
16Characterization continued… There are five different methods of implied characterization:Speech: What does the character say? How does the character speak?Thoughts: What is revealed through the character’s private thoughts and feelings?Effect on others toward the character: What is revealed through the character’s effect on other people? How do other characters feel or behave in reaction to the character?Actions: What does the character do? How does the character behave?Looks: What does the character look like? How does the character dress?
17Flat CharactersAre uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a workExample: Injun Joe
18Round Characters are complex and undergo development/ change sometimes extreme changes to surprise the readerExample: Tom Sawyer, Huck Finn
19Symbol something which represents something else besides itself Example:The dove, with olive branch in beak, Glides over all the land Searching for a place to light. Storms of war linger on every hand, Everywhere the hawk does fight.The dove is a symbol of peace, and the hawk is a symbol of war. Using them in poetry gives an image without having to explain in detail.
20IronyVerbal irony: saying something, but meaning the opposite (sarcasm)Example- I LOVE it when people talk as I try to teach!!Situational irony: the opposite of what was expected happensExample- the fire house catches on fireDramatic irony: where the audience is aware of a situation and the characters are notExample- you see the murderer in the closet, the young babysitter does not, she goes into the room and …