2Structured CablingStructured Cabling is the foundation for any communications installation.An appropriate cabling installation ensures the proper operation of equipment, manageability, organization, and expandability of a communications network.
3Network CablingIn the early 1980's a variety of cable types and designs were utilized. Coaxial and twin-axial cables were the most popular.Proprietary (non-standardized) designs were predominant.Today cabling and devices have been standardized in a way which makes them interoperable and compatible in almost any implementation.
4Standards BodiesThese organizations are composed of representatives from various distributors, manufacturers, and customers in the communications industryANSI - American National Standards InstituteTIA - Telecommunication Industry AssociationEIA - Electronics Industry Association
5EIA/TIA-568 - first version of the standard published July of 1991. TSB-36 August of 1991 a Technical Systems Bulletin specifications for higher grades (Cat 4, Cat 5) of UTP.TSB-40 August of 1992 TSB-40 published addressing higher grades of UTP connecting hardware.TSB-40A UTP patch cords in more detail, and to clarify testing requirements for UTP modular jacks.TIA/EIA-568A/(CSA T529) Commercial Telecommunications Cabling StandardEIA/TIA-569/(CSA T530) Commercial Building Standard for Telecommunications Pathways and SpacesEIA/TIA-570/(CSA T525) Residential and Light Commercial Telecommunications Wiring StandardTIA/EIA-606/(CSA T528) Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial BuildingsTIA/EIA-607/(CSA T527) Commercial Building Grounding/Bonding RequirementsTSB-67 Transmission Performance Specifications for Field Testing of Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling SystemsTSB-72 Centralized Optical Fiber Cabling Guidelines
6Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard (ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A-95) Committee: TRPublished: October 25, 1995Category: TelecommunicationsDescription: This standard specifies a generic telecommunications cabling system for commercial buildings that will support a multiproduct, multivendor environment. It also provides information that may be used for the design of telecommunications products for commercial enterprises. The purpose of this standard is to enable the planning and installation of a structured cabling system for commercial buildings
7TIA/EIA-569-ATitle: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces (ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A-98)Committee: TRPublished: October 24, 1990Category: TelecommunicationsDescription: This Standard encompasses telecommunications considerations both within and between buildings. The aspects covered are the pathways into which telecommunications media are placed and the rooms and areas associated with the building used to terminate media and install telecommunications equipment.
8Purpose of the TIA/EIA-568A Standard Establish a generic telecommunications cabling standard that will support a multivendor environmentEnable the planning and installation of a structured cabling system for commercial buildingsEstablish performance and technical criteria for various cabling systems configurations
9TSB-67 Transmission Performance Specification for Field Testing of Unshielded Twisted Pair Cabling SystemsTSB-67 defines the allowable worst case attenuation and NEXT for an installed link.
10Scope of the TIA/EIA-568A Standard Minimum requirements for telecommunications cabling within an office environmentRecommended topology and distancesMedia parameters which determine performanceConnector and pin assignments to ensure inter-connectabilityThe useful life of telecommunications cabling systems as being in excess of ten years
11The Six Subsystems of a Structured Cabling System 1.Building Entrance2.Equipment Room3.Backbone CablingSpecified Topology4.Telecommunications Closet5.Horizontal CablingMaximum DistancesTelecommunications Outlet8-Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments6.Work Area
131. Entrance FacilityPoint where outside plant cables and associated hardware are brought into the building.Cables from the outside end in an Equipment Room which is the main distribution point for the building. This is often called the BDF (Building Distribution Frame).
142. Equipment Room A centralized space for communications equipment. Equipment Rooms often contain cabling distribution equipment.“Patch Panels” and “Cross Connect Blocks” are used to terminate or end cables and to connect them with other cables and equipment.
153. Backbone CablingInterconnections between closets and equipment rooms within a single building or between other buildings.Large buildings may contain several distribution points or Telecommunications Closets which are necessary to overcome distance limitations.Risers are Vertical cable runs which connect Telecommunications Closets on different floors.
164. Telecom. ClosetA space where horizontal distribution cables are terminated.All cable and media types must be terminated on compatible connecting hardware.Backbone cables are also terminated in the closet. Cross connection is done with jumpers or patch cords to provide flexible connectivity.
175. Horizontal CablingPhysical media used to connect each outlet to a closet.Horizontal Cables span from Telecommunications closets to the wall jacks with which users connect their equipment.Copper Cables, Coaxial Cables, and Fiberoptic cables may be used.
186. Work AreaConnections and cabling on the other side of the telecommunications jack.
20568A Implementation offers voice and data to each workstation Mandates 2 jacks (1 for voice 1 for data) per stationVoice Jacks 4 pair 100 Ohm Category 3 or betterData Jacks 4 Pair Category 5 or Better or multi-mode fiber.
21Media Types Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP)Single and Multi-Mode FiberCoaxial Cable (Grand-fathered into but not recognized by the TIA/EIA 568 A standard).
22Media and Connecting Hardware Performance Specifications of the 568 Standard 100 Ohm Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cabling SystemsHorizontal CableBackbone CableUTP Connecting Hardware and Cords
23150 Ohm Shielded Twisted Pair (STP-A) Cabling Systems Horizontal and Backbone STP-A Cable150 Ohm STP-A Data Connector150 Ohm STP-A Patch CableOptical Fiber Cabling SystemsOptical Fiber Cabling MediaOptical Fiber ConnectorOptical Fiber Telecommunications OutletTSB-67 Standard
24Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Developed by IBM for Token RingRated at 20 MHzNewer STP 568 A systems can achieve MHzElectrical Performance of Twisted Pair CableUses electrical signals to carry dataSTP cabling systems are more expensive and harder to install and maintain than UTP cabling systems, but are not necessarily better.
25UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Most Common type of cable installed in buildings.Most common media for Ethernet and LAN cabling.Often used in conjunction with Telephone distributionUnshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more flexible, and less expensive then Shielded Twisted Pair.
26UTP CablesA communications cable using one or more pairs of wires that are twisted together. When driven as a balanced line, the twisting reduces the susceptibility to external interference and the radiation of signal energy.
27Four Pair, 24 Gauge 100 Ohm copper cable UnbalancedPVC or Plenum JacketTypes of UTP Cable: Category 3, 4, 5, and “Enhanced Category 5” or Category 6
28Twist Pitchused in UTP cabling to identify the different length distance of different pairs within a single cable. The twist pitch varies between pairs to reduce the affects of NEXT or signals jumping from one pair to another.
29Category 3 Transmission Frequencies up to 16 MHz Intended for low speed data, telephone, 4 Mbs Token Ring, and 10 Mbs Ethernet applications.Category 4Transmission Frequencies up to 20 MHzSuitable for all category 3 applications as well as 16 Mbs Token Ring
30Category 5 Transmission Frequencies up to 100 MHz Most popular for high speed applicationsSuitable for all Category 3 and 4 applications as well as any copper based voice, video, or data application such as: 100 Mbs "Fast Ethernet", CDDI (FDDI over Copper), and possibly Gigabit Ethernet over copper.
31Enhanced Category 5 and Category 6 High frequency applications such as Gigabit Ethernet and certainly ATM will require better and higher bandwidth cables than originally specified by the Category 5 standard. While Gigabit Ethernet should be compatible with Category 5 cabling, it is suggested that cabling for high speed applications including Fast Ethernet should exceed Category 5 standards.New standards are under development for such cabling, however “enhanced Category 5” cabling is available now.
32UTP Installation Considerations Unshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more flexible, and less expensive then Shielded Twisted Pair.The Entire link or infrastructure (including jacks and cross connect blocks) must be composed of Category 5 components.All cables and components must be installed and terminated properly to achieve Category 5 standards.
33Maximum distance of horizontal cabling is 295 feet (90 meters). Patch cords max length 6mHorizontal Cabling 90 mEquipment Cords 2 mMaximum pull tension for Category 5 UTP is 25 foot lbs. (to avoid stretching the twists of the pairs).12" Minimum distance from florescent lighting5" Minimum distance between power and data cables.Minimum bend radius of 1 to 4 inchesCables must be dressed, labeled, and managedCable ties must not be tightened (Velcro is better)No staplesAt termination points the jacket should be striped as little as possible < 1/2 ".
34Stranded UTP vs.. Solid UTP usually used for patch cableswires or conductors are made of many flexible strands in order to make the wire stronger and more flexible.stranded UTP is not suitable for longer distances due to its lower efficiency than Solid UTP.
35Solid UTPusually used in horizontal wiring (wiring to jacks) in which the wires or conductors are solid.Solid UTP cables are less flexible and more brittle than stranded cables, however they are cheaper and more efficient.
36TIA/EIA 568-A/B Modular Plug Termination 8 Pin Modular plugs are used to terminate UTP patch cables.Such cables are identical on either end (strait through)Two “standards” are available. 568A and 568 B.
37TIA/EIA 568-A/B Modular Jack Termination Modular Jacks are used in patch panels and wall jacks for termination of UTP cables.Modular Jacks follow the 568A or 568B similar to Modular Plugs.All parts of a Category 5 implementation must be Category 5 certified for proper operation
38Optical Fiber Uses Light pulses to transmit data. Impervious to EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) and RFI (Radio Frequency Interference)Light looses signal strength much slower than electricity which is good for distance.Fiber offers greater Bandwidth1 pair of fiber can offer greater bandwidth than 1,400 copper pairs in a voice system.Consists of a glass core surrounded by a protective coating.
39Multi-Mode and Single Mode Fiber Multi-Mode fiberUses LEDs to transmit dataOffers a number of "paths" for light to traverse or travel down a cable.Light travels down the core with a layer outside of the glass core reflecting the signal back to the core.The number of modes is determined by the wavelength of the light source and the size of the core.2Km max distance for multi-mode fiber.
40Single Mode Fiber Single Mode Fiber Uses a laser to transmit data (rather than an LED)More focused single path for light to travel down.Used in long distance high bandwidth applications