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Physical Transmission Media 8 5/9/2015 1 Modified by: Brierley.

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Transmission Media 8 5/9/2015 1 Modified by: Brierley."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Transmission Media 8 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

2 Objectives In this chapter, you will learn to: Characteristics of wireline transmission Properties and uses of coaxial cable Properties and uses of different types of twisted-pair wire Characteristics of lightwave transmission Properties and uses of fiber optic cable Factors to consider when selecting a telecommunications medium Cabling standards Installing wire and fiber optic cabling Testing continuity and performance on physical transmission media 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

3 Characteristics of Wireline Transmission Impedance: expressed in Ohms, is the combined effect of a circuit’s inductance and capacitance. Propagation Delay and Latency: the difference in time between a data packet’s transmission and its reception over a specific route. Distortion: the unintended and undesirable modification of at least one signal component, which makes the signal different from how it was originally transmitted. Noise: any unwanted interference from external sources. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

4 Crosstalk 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

5 Impulse Noise 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

6 Thermal Noise 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

7 Coaxial Cable 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

8 Non-twisted Wire 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

9 Level 1 Terminations 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

10 Twisted Pair (TP) 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

11 Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

12 Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

13 Category 5 (CAT5) 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

14 Category 3 (CAT3) 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley You describe and draw

15 Fiber Optic Cable 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

16 Fiber Optic Cable 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

17 Popular Uses for Fiber Optic Cable Includes connecting: Regional and local cable TV facilities Internet NAPs with other large telecommunications exchange point Central offices with other central offices Main feeders with central offices A telecommunication’s network with private LANs A telecommunication’s network with private switching systems, such as PBX 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

18 Selecting Appropriate Media When selecting telecommunications media consider: Existing infrastructure Throughput potential Cost of installation Noise immunity Security Size and scalability 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

19 Comparison of Physical Media 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

20 Comparison of Physical Media 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

21 Structured Cabling 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

22 Backbone Wiring 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

23 Telecommunications Closet 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

24 Telecommunications Closet 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

25 Horizontal Wiring 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

26 Work Area 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

27 Work Area 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

28 Installing UTP 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

29 Crossover Cable 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

30 Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP Do not untwist twisted-pair cables more than one-half inch before inserting them into the punch-down block or connector. Pay attention to the bend radius limitations for the type of cable you are installing. Test each segment of cabling as you install it with a cable tester. Use only cable ties to cinch groups of cables together 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

31 Installation Tips for CAT5 UTP When pulling cable, do not exert more than 25 pounds of pressure on the cable. Avoid laying cable across the floor where it might sustain damage from rolling chairs or foot traffic. Install cable at least three feet away from fluorescent lights or other sources of EMI. Always leave slack in cable runs. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

32 Installing Fiber Splice - the physical joining of two facing and aligned pieces of wire or fiber. Mechanical splicing - the two ends of a fiber optic cable are fixed in position within a tube so that they form one continuous communications channel. Fusion splicing - a connection between fibers is accomplished through the application of heat and the resulting melting and fusion of two fiber strands. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

33 Mechanical and Fusion Splicing 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

34 ST and SC Fiber Connectors 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

35 Cable Installation Tips for Fiber Optic Cable When pulling fiber optic cable, do not exert pressure on the cable. Fiber optic cable should be installed within a conduit whenever you are concerned about the potential for environmental damage. Do not exceed the minimum bend radius. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

36 Troubleshooting Connectivity Problems Identify the symptoms Identify the scope of the problem Establish what has changed on the network Determine the most probable cause of the problem Implement a solution Test the solution Recognize the potential effects of the solution Document the solution 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

37 Troubleshooting Tools Crossover Cable - allows you to quickly and easily verify that a node’s network adapter is transmitting and receiving signals properly. Tone Generator - a small electronic device that issues a signal on a wire pair. Tone Locator - a type of amplifier that can detect the inductive energy emitted by the tone (current) on a wire. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

38 Tone Generator and Tone Locator 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

39 Performance Testers Provides the following functions: Measures the length of each wire pair Ensures that the cable does not exceed recommended maximum lengths Measures the distance from the tester to a cable fault Measures attenuation along a cable Measures crosstalk between wires 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

40 Performance Testers 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

41 Fiber Optic Cable Testers 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

42 Time Domain Reflectometers 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

43 Telephone Test Set 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley

44 Summary Characteristics that affect wireline transmission include impedance changes, latency, delay distortion, and noise. Traditional four-pair, non-twisted copper telephone wiring is known as Level 1 cable or quad wire. Category (CAT3) UTP cable is the minimum grade of unshielded twisted-pair cabling for use in telephone systems. To identify the source of cabling infrastructure problems, follow a logical troubleshooting methodology and have the appropriate testing tools handy. 5/9/ Modified by: Brierley


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