2TIA/EIA 568 Standards TIA/EIA-568A TIA/EIA-568B Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling StandardTIA/EIA-568B
3TIA/EIA 569-ACommercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways and Spaces (ANSI/TIA/EIA-569-A-98)
4TIA 606-A Administration Standard for the Telecommunications Infrastructure of Commercial Buildings
5TIA-606-A Feb. 1993… to provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, which may change several times throughout the life of a building.This standard establishes guidelines for owners, end users, manufacturers, consultants, contractors, designers, installers, and facilities administrators involved in the administration of the telecommunications infrastructure or related administration system.
6The Six Subsystems of a Structured Cabling System 1.Building Entrance2.Equipment Room3.Backbone CablingSpecified Topology4.Telecommunications Closet5.Horizontal CablingMaximum DistancesTelecommunications Outlet8-Position Modular Jack Pair Assignments6.Work Area
7Scope of the TIA/EIA-568A Standard Minimum requirements for telecommunications cabling within an office environmentRecommended topology and distancesMedia parameters which determine performanceConnector and pin assignments to ensure inter-connectabilityThe useful life of telecommunications cabling systems as being in excess of ten years
8568A Implementation offers voice and data to each workstation Mandates 2 jacks (1 for voice 1 for data) per stationVoice Jacks 4 pair 100 Ohm Category 3 or betterData Jacks 4 Pair Category 5 or Better or multi-mode fiber.
9Media Types Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP)Single and Multi-Mode FiberCoaxial Cable (Grand-fathered into but not recognized by the TIA/EIA 568 A standard).
10UTP CablesA communications cable using one or more pairs of wires that are twisted together. When driven as a balanced line, the twisting reduces the susceptibility to external interference and the radiation of signal energy.
11UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) Most Common type of cable installed in buildings.Most common media for Ethernet and LAN cabling.Often used in conjunction with Telephone distributionUnshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more flexible, and less expensive then Shielded Twisted Pair.
12Four Pair, 24 Gauge 100 Ohm copper cable BalancedPVC or Plenum JacketTypes of UTP Cable: Category 3, 4, 5, and “Enhanced Category 5” or Category 6
13Twist Pitchused in UTP cabling to identify the different length distance of different pairs within a single cable. The twist pitch varies between pairs to reduce the affects of NEXT or signals jumping from one pair to another.
14Category 3 Category 4 Transmission Frequencies up to 16 MHz Intended for low speed data, telephone, 4 Mbs Token Ring, and 10 Mbs Ethernet applications.Category 4Transmission Frequencies up to 20 MHzSuitable for all category 3 applications as well as 16 Mbs Token Ring
15Category 5 Transmission Frequencies up to 100 MHz Most popular for high speed applicationsSuitable for all Category 3 and 4 applications as well as any copper based voice, video, or data application such as: 100 Mbs "Fast Ethernet", CDDI (FDDI over Copper), and possibly Gigabit Ethernet over copper.
16Enhanced Category 5 and Category 6 High frequency applications such as Gigabit Ethernet and certainly ATM will require better and higher bandwidth cables than originally specified by the Category 5 standard. While Gigabit Ethernet should be compatible with Category 5 cabling, it is suggested that cabling for high speed applications including Fast Ethernet should exceed Category 5 standards.New standards are under development for such cabling, however “enhanced Category 5” cabling is available now.
17UTP Summary Characteristics Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Four Pair, 24 Gauge 100 Ohm copper cableUnbalancedPVC or Plenum JacketTypes of UTP Cable: Category 3, 4, 5, and "Enhanced Category 5" or Category 6Category 3Transmission Frequencies up to 16 MHzintended for low speed data, telephone, 4 Mbps Token Ring, and 10 Mbps Ethernet applications.Category 4Transmission Frequencies up to 20 MHzSuitable for all category 3 applications as well as16 Mbps Token RingCategory 5Transmission Frequencies up to 100 MhzMost popular for high speed applicationsSuitable for all Category 3 and 4 applications as well as any copper based voice, video, or data application such as: 100 Mbps "Fast Ethernet", CDDI (FDDI over Copper), and ATM.Enhanced Category 5 and Category 6High frequency applications such as Gigabit Ethernet and certainly ATM will require better and higher bandwidth cables than originally specified by the Category 5 standard. While Gigabit Ethernet should be compatible with Category 5 cabling, it is suggested that cabling for high speed applications including Fast Ethernet should exceed Category 5 standards.New standards for such cabling is underway.
18UTP Installation Considerations Unshielded Twisted Pair is smaller, more flexible, and less expensive then Shielded Twisted Pair.The Entire link or infrastructure (including jacks and cross connect blocks) must be composed of Category 5 components.All cables and components must be installed and terminated properly to achieve Category 5 standards.
19Maximum distance of horizontal cabling is 295 feet (90 meters). Patch cords max length 6mHorizontal Cabling 90 mEquipment Cords 2 mMaximum pull tension for Category 5 UTP is 25 foot lbs. (to avoid stretching the twists of the pairs).12" Minimum distance from florescent lighting5" Minimum distance between power and data cables.Minimum bend radius of 1 to 4 inchesCables must be dressed, labeled, and managedCable ties must not be tightened (Velcro is better)No staplesAt termination points the jacket should be striped as little as possible < 1/2 ".
20Stranded UTP vs.. Solid UTP usually used for patch cableswires or conductors are made of many flexible strands in order to make the wire stronger and more flexible.stranded UTP is not suitable for longer distances due to its lower efficiency than Solid UTP.
21Solid UTPusually used in horizontal wiring (wiring to jacks) in which the wires or conductors are solid.Solid UTP cables are less flexible and more brittle than stranded cables, however they are cheaper and more efficient.
31Thin Net Coax (Coaxial Cable) Used for 10Base 2 Ethernet. Coax is primarily used for its self shielding properties, low attenuation at LAN frequencies, and installation expense.The construction of the cable greatly reduces susceptibility to outside interfering signals and noise, as well as minimizing the radiated emissions from the cable. Jacket- (sheath) The outer protective covering of a cable.Center Conductor Inner part of a Thin- net (coaxial cable). Center conductor or wire on which the LAN signal is carried. See Thin-net, shield, braided wire shield, foil shield, 10Base 2."Insulation A material which is nonconductive to the flow of electric current. The coating (usually plastic) of a conductor which insulates it from other conductors.Shield A metallic foil or multi-wire screen mesh that is used to prevent electromagnetic fields from penetrating or exiting a transmission cable.
33Optical FiberMulti-Mode fibermost commonly used in LANs and MANs.A fiber wave guide which supports the propagation of multiple modes.Multi-mode fiber may have a typical core diameter of 50 to 100 um with a refractive index that is graded or stepped.It allows the use of inexpensive LED light sources and connector alignment and coupling is less critical than with single mode fiber.Distances of transmission and transmission bandwidth are less than single mode fiber due to dispersion of the light signal.
34Single Mode FiberA fiber wave guide in which only one mode will propagate. Single mode fiber has a very small core diameter, in some fibers aprox. 8 micron. It allows signal transmission for long fiber distances with relatively high bandwidth and is generally driven with a laser diode."
41Cable Properties and Characteristics AttenuationNEXTTesting
42AttenuationAttenuation refers to the power loss an electrical signal experiences as it travels through a cable.Communications equipment operates by detecting signal variations (which becomes more difficult as the signal becomes weaker).In a Category 5 system TIA/EIA 568A limits attenuation to 24 dB for 100 MHz signal.20 db of attenuation means that only 1/100 th of the original signal reaches its destination.the lower the dB means the stronger the signalDistance, higher frequencies and high temperatures increase attenuation.
43UTP Cable Certification and Testing Attenuation and Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) are the two most crucial electrical parameters that distinguish performance characteristics of twisted pair cable.AttenuationAttenuation is the loss of communication signal energy.Represented in dB or decibels.DecibelsAttenuation and NEXT are reported in negative (- dB).Attenuation and NEXT dB are relative measures of changes in voltage.dB loss has a logarithmic progression.3 dB = 2X10 dB = 10X20 dB = 100X30 dB = 1,000X40 dB = 10,000X50 dB = 100,000X60 dB = 1,000,000X
44Near End Cross Talk (NEXT) NEXT occurs when a portion of the signal energy jumps from one pair in a cable to another.Cables are most susceptible to cross talk near their ends, or close to devices.In a UTP cable one or two pairs are used to transmit signals while the other pair or pairs receive.Close proximity of the transmit pairs increases NEXT.The first 50 or 60 ft of a cable run are the most susceptible to NEXT.Cross connects are especially susceptible to NEXT.
45Too much signal "noise" prevents the receiver from distinguishing transmit form receive signals and results in garbled transmission and poor network performance.Attenuation to Cross Talk marginCategory 3 Category 4 Category 5Attenuation per 100m dB dB 8.2 dBNEXT dB 38 dB 44 dBPeak Frequency MHz 20 MHz 100 MHz
46Pair Scanners Pair Scanners CAT 5 Pair Scanner (Cable Tester) CAT 5 Pair Scanners Differ from normal Pair Scanners in that they test all pairs of the cables at various frequencies up to 100 MHz.Measures each pair for Distance (Including Twist Pitch)