Presentation on theme: "Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri Reesha Adamson, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Classroom Accommodations for Students with Disabilities and Those At-risk Tim Lewis, Ph.D.University of MissouriReesha Adamson, Ph.D.Missouri State University
2 The ChallengeStudents spend majority of their school day in the classroomMajority of “discipline problems” originate in the classroom and often result in removal from instructionRemaining engaged in instruction essential to student academic and social success“Culture” of education often reinforces ineffective practices and creates barriers to implementing effective practices
4 Need for ResearchPoor outcomes among students with emotional and behavioral disordersHigh dropout ratePoor academic achievementPoor post-school outcomesFew evidence-based interventions targeting high school age students
5 Cross-Disciplinary Focus Special EducationMental /Behavioral Health
6 Goals of Major StudyIdentify/develop effective education and mental health interventions for students with emotional and behavioral problemsMaximize intervention feasibilityMaintain evidence based best practices approachDevelop interventions within existing school resources
7 Considerations for Intervention Development Interventions must be multi-component to adequately address the diverse needs of students with EBDInterventions must be delivered by practitioners after relatively little training and with minimal on-going technical assistanceClassroom and Mental Health ManualsAssessment & Resources matched to interventions
8 Manuals Overview / Rationale / Evidence Assessment / Data source to matchIntervention stepsSupporting forms/ tools/ examples
9 Overview of Intervention Components Intervention FocusCore Student ChallengeSpecific StrategyEnhancing School and Teacher CapacityAcademic SkillsEmotional/Behavioral ProblemsClassroom Structure / ManagementEvidence-Based Academic Instruction (OTR, Student interest, Accommodations)Teacher-Student InteractionsBuilding Youth CompetenceSocial SkillsGeneral LivingConnectednessMental HealthInterpersonal Skills CoachingOrganization and Study SkillsMentoring (Check & Connect)MH intervention when indicated (Anxiety & Depression)Increasing Family and Community SupportsBehaviorParent EducationHomework guidanceSecuring Effective Therapy & Supports
10 Basic Logic All students enrolled in “check & connect” OrganizationProgress MonitoringMentoring / problem solvingClassrooms targeted for intervention based on combination of student failure and evidence of problem behaviorClassroom Assessment – interventions tailored to address weaknesses /missing components & reinforce strengths
11 Check & ConnectDeveloped for high-risk urban students at the secondary level (Anderson, Christenson, Sinclair, Lehr, 2004; Evelo, Sinclair, Hurley, Christenson, Thurlow, 1996)Utilizes a monitoring system with two componentsCheckSystematically assess the extent to which students are engaged in school.ConnectRespond on a regular basis to students’ educational needs according to their type and level of risk for disengagement from school.Establish an adult mentor at school to enhance school engagement
12 CHECKMTuWThFTardySkipAbsentBehavior referralDetentionIn-school suspensionOut-of-school suspensionFailing classes/Behind in credits_____ D’s _____ F’s _____ Classes passed out of _____ total ____Credits earned out of _____ total< High risk for monthCONNECTBASICShared general informationProvided regular feedbackDiscussed staying in schoolProblem-solved about riskINTENSIVEArranged for alternative to suspensionContracted for behavior or gradesCommunicated with parentsMade special accommodationsParticipated in community serviceParticipated in social skills groupWorked with tutor or mentorOther_____________________
13 Classroom Assessment Targets Classroom StructureRules and routinesImproving Teacher-Student InteractionsEvidence-Based Academic InstructionOpportunities to Respond (OTR)Incorporating students’ choice and interestsAccommodationsResponding to problem behavior
14 Need for Appropriate Accommodations Approximately 85% of secondary students with EBD have at least one class in the general education setting.Help students:access grade level materialsaccess instructionimprove classroom performance.Prevent students from falling farther behind academically and potentially dropping out.
15 Percentage of Students Academic Services, Supports, and Modifications for Students with EBD (Wagner et al., 2006)SupportsPercentage of StudentsElementaryMiddleHighMore time to take tests72.872.675.6Tests read to students45.640.026.5Modified tests43.746.324.2More time to complete assignments66.567.354.2Modified assignments47.941.420.8Modified grading standards37.327.314.5Slower-paced instruction51.046.519.0Peer tutoring17.010.58.2Adult tutoring22.214.171.124Learning strategies/study skills33.036.527.5
16 Problems (Fuchs & Fuchs) Students with disabilities and those at high-risk for academic failure need accommodations to succeed in general education classesAccommodations not routinely providedWhen they are provided, teachers do not know how to select accommodationsMost accommodations randomly selectedAccommodations not matched to student need
17 Accommodations vs. Modifications Changes to how academic content is presented or assessedAccommodations do not change what the student is expected to masterModifications change what the student is expected to master
18 Accommodations Assumptions Allow the student to earn a valid score, not necessarily an optimal scoreProduce a differential boostA single accommodation is not valid or beneficial for all studentsA student may need more than one accommodation.Testing accommodations and instructional accommodations should be similar
20 Purpose of GuideFacilitate selection of one or more accommodations that are matched to the student’s specific academic or behavioral needsIncrease the match between a particular student’s difficulty and an appropriate accommodation.Match testing accommodations to instructional accommodations
21 Implementation of Guide Provide teachers who rated accommodations as feasible and acceptable with model on how to choose accommodationsIdentify student problemSelect related accommodationHave teachers implement the accommodationAssess student performanceGather teacher feedback and treatment acceptability data post implementation
35 Student IEP Accommodations Testing:Alternative settingExtended time for completionRead test to student (if requested)Assignments and Instruction:Lower difficulty level-shorten assignmentsProvided structured time to organize materialsFrequent reminders of rulesCheck often for understanding/reviewExtended time for oral responsesExtended time for written responsesMaintain assignment notebookBathroom break first 5 mins. of class, unless emergencyUse lined paper for written assignmentsAssist or provide notes and study guidesExtended to create assignments (1 ½ weeks or as agreed upon w/ teacher)
36 Step #2: Identify general indicators of concern Writing, specifically difficulty organizing writing“Couldn’t complete short answer”Attention to detail“Chose wrong answers on multiple choice and selected obviously wrong answers”Planning and time management“Ran out of time to complete the test even when given multiple class periods”
37 Step # 3 Identify accommodations matched to student’s needs Writing: Difficulty Organizing WritingGraphic OrganizersAttention to DetailAssign a Peer PartnerUse Graphic OrganizersChunk Large Assignments into Smaller TasksPlanning and Time Management
38 Step # 4: Coordinate accommodations Model AccommodationsWriting: Difficulty Organizing WritingGraphic OrganizersAttention to DetailAssign a Peer PartnerUse Graphic OrganizersChunk Large Assignments into Smaller TasksPlanning and Time ManagementIEP AccommodationsTesting-Alternative SettingExtended time for completionRead test to student (if requested)Assignments and Instruction-Lower Difficulty Level-Shorten AssignmentsProvided Structured Time to Organize MaterialsFrequent Reminders of RulesCheck often for understanding/reviewExtended time for Oral ResponsesExtended time for Written ResponsesMaintain Assignment NotebookBathroom Break first 5 mins. Of class, unless emergencyUse lined paper for written assignmentsAssist or Provide Notes and Study GuidesExtended to create assignments (1 ½ weeks or as agreed upon w/ Teacher)
39 Step #5: Meet with the student for input and preferences Student agreed with teachers concerns.Student agreed to all suggested accommodations.Student requested:A different seat with less distractions during independent work.Materials if he forgot to bring them.
40 Step #6: List accommodations to be implemented and evaluated. PrioritizeDetermine instruction or testingDefine and describe conditions:1) Use graphic organizers (I/T) All in class work, Teacher-created or pre-made organizers.1) Change seat to reduce distractions (I/T) Student and teacher will meet to discuss alternative seat, can be changed if student does demonstrate classroom expectations.1) Materials be given to student if forgotten (e.g. pencil) (I/T) Student must request material at the start of the class and give teacher collateral for the return of material at the end of the class period.2) Assign a peer partner (I) All in-class work with a teacher chosen partner.3) Chunk large assignments into smaller tasks (I) All in class assignments spanning multiple class periods with a teacher-created checklist of completed tasks.
41 Step #7: Teach the accommodations Assign a peer partner What are the appropriate behaviors of working with a peer?What noise level can you work with a peer?What does helping vs. doing look like?Use graphic organizersHow do I use graphic organizers (5 paragraph outline, flow chart, venn diagram, checklist, etc.)?Chunk large assignments into smaller tasksHow do I use a checklist?How do I manage my time?Change seat to reduce distractionsHow do I transition?When is it appropriate to move?Materials given to student if forgotten (e.g. pencil)How do I know what materials I need?What is appropriate collateral?
42 Step #8:Examine at least three samples of student work/tests to determine if there is a change in the performance trendClass Grade Increased from a 24% to a 77%Highest class grade he had received since beginning high school!
43 Active Engagement Percentage of Time Data Observation Periods Baseline Graphic OrganizersChange SeatMaterials GivenPeer PartnerChunking AssignmentsGraphic OrganizersChange Seat outside classroomMaterials GivenPeer PartnerChunking AssignmentsPercentage of TimeData Observation Periods
45 Acceptability & Feasibility: Pre-implementation Teachers asked to rate interventions indicated by classroom assessment process% Indicated% Feasible & AcceptableTop Reason Why Not Implemented25.1051.79Other
46 Social Validity Measure: Description School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF)Adapted from the Treatment Acceptability Rating Form-Revised (Reimers & Wacker, 1988)Items assess an intervention’s perceived costs, effectiveness, disruptiveness, and acceptabilityRated on a 7-point Likert scale (range 1-7)2 versions:Teacher: 18 acceptability itemsStudent : 6 acceptability items
47 Acceptability & Feasibility: Post-implementation Teacher Relative RatingsOverall AcceptabilityItems with Highest Mean AcceptabilityItems with Lowest Mean AcceptabilityMean (Range)Mean5.8 ( )Cost (6.9)Willingness to Implement (6.7)Not Disruptive (6.7)Effectiveness (3.8)Likelihood of permanent improvement (3.7)
48 Acceptability & Feasibility: Post-implementation Student Relative RatingsOverall AcceptabilityItems with Highest Mean AcceptabilityItems with Lowest Mean AcceptabilityMean (Range)Mean4.4 (2.0-7)Easy (5.3)Comfortable (5.3)Understanding (4.4)Help Improve (4.2)Like Intervention (3.2)
49 Implications for Research and Practice Implementation at secondary level difficultMany accommodations indicated, but teachers did not always report them as feasible and acceptableOverall, teachers and students rated accommodations as acceptable post-implementationAccommodations were rated at-least somewhat effective 1 month post-implementation