Presentation on theme: "Test Prep 2010: Lesson 1 Lesson Focus: Writing Conventions 1.2 and 1.3."— Presentation transcript:
Test Prep 2010: Lesson 1 Lesson Focus: Writing Conventions 1.2 and 1.3
Standards Addressed Written and Oral English Language Conventions 1.2: Understand sentence construction and proper English usage including parallel structure, verb tense consistency, and modifier placement. Written and Oral English Language Conventions 1.3: Understand proper English usage including grammar, paragraph and sentence structure.
Step 1: Sample Sentences Review the following sample sentences from the exam. You will be asked to examine the underlined portion of the sentence or fill in a blank by identifying grammar or punctuation errors.
Sample Sentences While Juan visited with Jessica: she finished her English homework. After, the girl fell asleep, her mom tucked her in bed and turned out the light. The Pacific Ocean shimmered in the sun but the water still feels freezing cold when Todd jumped in. “We should __________ with caution,” the detective said nervously. (proceeds, precede, precedent, proceed)
PARALLEL STRUCTURE When two or more actions are being described in the same sentence, all verbs or verb phrases must be written in the same form.
Examples Using the sentences below, discuss why each example is correct/incorrect: INCORRECT: My dog Max loves jumping over hedges and to chase Frisbees. CORRECT: My dog Max loves to jump over hedges and to chase Frisbees. Note: parallel structure is necessary for nouns too! INCORRECT: Mr. Bishop is gifted not only as a great teacher but also at writing novels. CORRECT: Mr. Bishop is gifted not only at teaching but also at writing novels.
Practice! Correct the parallel structure in the following sentences: 1. Mary’s hobbies include hiking, swimming, and she likes to ride her bike. 2. Coach Esparza was a caring mentor, brilliantly played baseball, and a good friend. 3. There is nothing I like better than hanging out with friends, a good book, and long naps in the sun. 4. The apartment was filled with old newspapers, the furniture was broken and ashtrays that were overflowing.
VERB TENSE CONSISTENCY: When two or more actions are being describe in a sentence, all verbs or verb phrase describing the same time period must be written in the same tense.
Examples Discuss why each example is correct/ incorrect: INCORRECT: While I waited for the movie to begin, I was realizing that I forgot all about my sister’s ballet recital. CORRECT: While I waited for the movie to begin, I realized that I forgot all about my sister’s ballet recital
Practice! Correct the verb tense consistency in the following sentences 1. The ocean contains rich minerals that washed down from rivers and streams. 2. Yesterday we had walked to school but then rode the bus home. 3. If the restaurant raised its prices, it will have to improve its service. 4. A fly buzzed in my face so I swipe at it.
MODIFIER PLACEMENT: A modifier is a word or phrase that is improperly separated from the word it modifies or describes. Because of this separation, the sentence will sound awkward, ridiculous or confusing. For example, the sentence “We rented a small house near the amusement park that had three rooms,” sounds like the amusement park had three rooms. Read the following sentences to see more examples of misplaced modifiers and how those sentences can be improved.
Examples Discuss why each example is correct/incorrect. AWKWARD: Swinging wildly through the trees, the children were delighted by the monkeys. IMPROVED: The children were delighted by the monkeys swinging wildly through the trees. AWKWARD: Dimitri’s ice cream melted while driving through rush-hour traffic. IMPROVED: While Dimitri was driving through rush-hour traffic, his ice cream melted.
Practice! Improve the modifier placement in the following sentences: 1. Gregory put the fish on the table that he had baked. 2. Although nearly over, we left the movie early because I was worried about my sick grandmother. 3. Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car seemed to run better. 4. John wants to really do well on this exam. 5. The little girl hugged the kitten with tears in her eyes.